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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 396 matches for " BIRD "
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Effects of Surgery and Palliative Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Colorectal Liver Metastasis  [PDF]
Nigel Bird, Ruth Bird, Ali Majeed
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.26066
Abstract: Purpose: 1) To compare the survival of patients with colorectal liver metastases who underwent resection as the primary treatment against patients who had chemotherapy as the primary treatment. 2) To compare the survival in patients with recurrent inoperable liver metastases (after resection) treated with Oxaliplatin or Irinotecan against those patients with inoperable recurrence who were treated with 5-FU. Patients and Methods: 538 patients with colorectal liver metastases were referred to our unit between November 1997 and May 2005; 247 underwent liver resection and 291 had palliative chemotherapy. Results: Only 7.8% of non-operated patients survived for 5 years compared to 31.5% of the liver resection group. After surgery, 191 patients developed inoperable recurrent disease. These patients were treated with chemotherapy; Ox/Ir patients had a 3 year survival of 55% compared to 32% of those who received 5-FU. Our data shows that in patients who relapse after liver surgery, chemotherapy with Oxaliplatin or Irinotecan confers a significant survival benefit.
Bio-Piracy on the High Seas? Benefit Sharing from Marine Genetic Resource Exploitation in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction  [PDF]
John Samuel Bird
Natural Resources (NR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2018.912026
Abstract: Transnational benefit sharing from the exploitation of Marine Genetic Resources’ (MGR’s) in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) presents a unique problem in international law. Proposals to govern MGR’s in ABNJ include leaving them unregulated, governance under the International Seabed Authority (ISA) or the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) or implementing a new international regime. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid solution for MGR governanceunder the ISA which is modeled on the CBD and The Nagoya Protocol (Nagoya), provides the most adroit solution to the problem of equal benefit and access to MGR’s for all States. This solution ensures adequate conservation of MGR’s, meanwhile fostering sustainable exploitation and maintaining equality in access, biodiversity and the sharing of financial and technological benefits amongst the internationalcommunity. Further, examining benefit sharing from bioprospecting under the CBD and Nagoya provides a foundation for a benefit-sharing regime in ABNJ under The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Examining the CBD, Nagoya and UNCLOS demonstrates how benefits arising from exploitation of MGR’s in the high seas and deep bed should be included as a mandate of the ISA. This methodology is accomplished by focusing on bioprospecting for MGR’s and how the CBD and Nagoya facilitate access to the resource while ensuring that the host State or community benefits from granting access. As the CBD and Nagoya focus on benefit sharing in light of national sovereignty, and UNCLOS regulates in areas beyond national jurisdiction, the ISA is perfectly placed to adopt the principles of the CBD and Nagoya and provide a mechanism to ensure that MGR’s in ABNJ are adequately conserved and the benefits arising from their exploitation equitably shared.
High society (of nematologists)
David Bird
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2004-5-11-353
Abstract: Nematodes are ubiquitous animals; even the most barren habitats (such as the deep-sea abyssal plains) support 105 individuals per square meter, whereas productive habitats (such as agricultural fields) support up to 108 nematodes per square meter. Although most research on nematodes is focused on the free-living model Caenorhabditis elegans and species important as human or veterinary parasites, the Society of Nematologists (SON) largely represents scientists interested in the other species. Two speakers in the plenary session, Diana Wall (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA) and Byron Adams (Brigham Young University, Provo, USA), gently chided the SON membership for not embracing contemporary biology more broadly - with the question "have we taken our blinders off?" - somewhat ironically given the recent inroads genomic approaches have made towards the understanding of nematode phylogenies, evolution and function.The tight integration of genomics with cell biology was especially evident in a symposium on plant-nematode interactions chaired by Kris Lambert (University of Illinois, Urbana, USA). Lambert's earlier work identified a chorismate mutase gene in the plant-parasitic root-knot nematode and postulated that this had been acquired from a bacterial donor via a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event. Although the function of this enzyme in the host-parasite interaction remains speculative, Lambert's demonstration at the meeting of multiple forms of the protein does argue for a genuine role, although this awaits confirmation from an RNA interference (RNAi) experiment. Chris Taylor (Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, USA) described a microarray approach for profiling transcriptional changes in Arabidopsis membrane transport proteins that are induced by root-knot nematode invasion. Importantly, these findings support a 40-year-old hypothesis that the feeding cells elicited by the parasite are functional transfer cells (plant cells specialized fo
The Early Universe as a Probe of New Physics
Bird, Chris
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: The Standard Model of Particle Physics has been verified to unprecedented precision in the last few decades. However there are still phenomena in nature which cannot be explained, and as such new theories will be required. Since terrestrial experiments are limited in both the energy and precision that can be probed, new methods are required to search for signs of physics beyond the Standard Model. In this dissertation, I demonstrate how these theories can be probed by searching for remnants of their effects in the early Universe. In particular I focus on three possible extensions of the Standard Model: the addition of massive neutral particles as dark matter (through the use of several minimal models of dark matter), the addition of charged massive particles (through catalyzed Big Bang Nucleosynthesis), and the existence of higher dimensions (through its effects on BBN and galactic positron production). For each new model, I review the existing experimental bounds and the potential for discovering new physics in the next generation of experiments.
Galactic Positrons as a Probe of Large Extra Dimensions
Bird, C.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: In the last decade, there has been increased interest in the possibility that the Universe contains large additional dimensions. In this article it is proposed that the Kaluza-Klein modes which are predicted to exist in such models will be trapped in the galactic halo, and that the subsequent decays of these modes in the present will generate an observable flux of positrons and $\gamma$-rays from the galactic core. In particular, by restricting the rate of production 511 keV photons to be below that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite, a new set of constraints are imposed on the ADD model.
The Minimal Model of Radion Mediated Dark Matter
Bird, Chris
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008,
Abstract: Based on the results from numerous astrophysics experiments, it is currently believed that the majority of matter in the Universe is in some unknown form, known as dark matter. In the past it has been common to model dark matter as a massive particle with weak interactions - either from existing Standard Model forces or from new forces - and often as past of a more complicated theory. In this article, an alternative is presented in which dark matter is in the form of a massive particle with no explicit interactions. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of strongly warped extra dimensions the inherent gravitational interactions of such a particle are sufficient to produce the observed abundance of dark matter without violating existing experimental constraints.
Aesthetics, Authority and the Outlaw of the Street
Susan Bird
Public Space : the Journal of Law and Social Justice , 2009,
Abstract: This is a paper about the meanings of aesthetics, authority, street art, and graffiti. It is about the potential that graffiti has to disrupt the codes that emanate from the post-industrial, capitalist city, and the ways in which law making authorities have attempted to curb that potential. The regulation of public space involves control over the visual appearance of that space. The Graffiti Prevention Act (Vic) 2007 is one instrument employed in regulating the aesthetics of space. The legislation defines street art as illegal and imposes harsh penalties for the creators of this form of public art. As Margaret Davies writes in Asking the Law Question, the illegality of an act cannot be seen at face value – it is only after we see the act through the filter of the law that it is seen as criminal. I use this as a starting point in asking why graffiti is a criminal act.
Subprime Crisis
Relaciones Internacionales , 2012,
Abstract: Subprime Crisis Video
The Under Representation of Women in a "Feminized Profession": Gender Stereotyping, Management Politics, and the Dissemination of Information
Amanda Bird
Dalhousie Journal of Interdisciplinary Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5931/djim.v3i1.23
Abstract: Despite the fact that there are more women in Master of Library and Information Studies (MLIS) programs than men, it is predominantly men who hold upper management positions within libraries. This paper critically examines the learned gender role differences between men and women, with specific attention given to stereotypical differences in the ways in which men and women lead in upper management roles. This paper explores the differences between these genders, paying particular attention to how these roles undervalue the work of women in the professional workforce.
Invariance Mechanics - A new direction for quantum gravity
Paul Bird
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: This paper has been withdrawn by the author.
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