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determine the relationship between vascular loops in the internal auditory
canal and otologic symptoms. Methods: We performed a retrospective study, with a systematic review of the literature
and analyzed the magnetic resonances imaging (MRI) of 91 patients attended in
the ENT department since April to June 2013, in order to correlate radiological
findings with otologic symptoms. Results: Vascular loops were seen in the internal auditory canal of patients without clinical symptoms;
however an association was found between the presence of vascular compression
of the eighth nerve displayed on MRI and the presence of sensorineural hearing
loss and tinnitus. No association was found between vertigo and vascular loops. Conclusion: The presence of vascular
loops in the internal auditory canal may be an incidental finding in MRIs of
patients without clinical symptoms. However, in patients with tinnitus or sensorineural hearing loss that is
unexplained by other clinical pathologies, these may be correlated with the
existence of vascular loops which compress the eighth cranial nerve or contact
the bone wall of the internal auditory canal. Further studies involving a
larger number of patients are required to accurately evaluate the association
between these symptoms and vascular loops.
Objective: This article is a critical review
of the literature concerning thyroid cartilage chondrosarcoma and is particularly focused on the
management and prognosis of this rare entity. Study Design: A review of all the
cases of thyroid cartilage chondrosarcoma reported in the literature up to January 2013. Methods: The search
was carried out through the introduction of the MeSH terms: Chondrosarcoma, Laryngeal Cartilages, Thyroid Cartilage, Therapeutics.
All the studies related to thyroid cartilage chondrosarcoma were selected together
with a newly presented case. Results: A total of 47 cases have been described
in the literature, and 35 of these include sufficient data for statistical analysis. The age
of patients ranged from 40 to 77 years, with a male predilection (88.6%). The
main symptoms were neck mass and hoarseness. Grade I and II tumors were most
frequent. A total of 13 cases described an extension of the tumor beyond the
thyroid cartilage. The most common treatment was partial laryngectomy (50%).
All patients who died were male, with grade II or II-III tumor or associated
sarcoma, had metastases and received radiotherapy in addition to total laryngectomy. Conclusion:
Patient age and tumor size does not influence the prognosis. Tumor grade I and I-II
have good prognoses, whereas the prognosis is unpredictable in tumors between grade II and III.
Patients with associated sarcoma, or metastasis, have a worse prognosis.
Partial laryngectomy is a good therapeutic option, although total laryngectomy
is sometimes required in order to ensure complete resection.