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Diversity and Effectiveness of Insect Pollinators of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2010,
Abstract: Seed of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is currently established as the source for biofuel Therefore, it is important to understand the diversity insects that pollinated J. curcas inflorescence yellow flowers. We also aimed to study the pollination effects on fruit set on J. curcas. Scan sampling method were carried out to explore the insect pollinators diversity from 07.00 up to 17.00 h in every 15 minutes. Visiting frequency of pollinators insects were observed by using focal sampling. Those information together with flowering periods, flower nectar volumes, and environmental factors were used as the basic data to determine the effectiveness of insect pollination both in covered and uncovered of seed set plants. Results showed that nine species of insect pollinators were from three order (Hymenoptera, Lepidotera, and Diptera) pollinated J. curcas. Four species of Hymenoptera i.e. Prenolepis, Apis dorsata, Xylocopa confusa, and Apis cerana showed the highest abundances. The highest abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.00-10.15 and 15.00-17.15 h. Bees of X. confusa, A. cerana, and A. dorsata of Apidae are effective as insect pollinators in J. curcas plantations, due to high visited frequencies. The insect pollinators also increased fruits and seeds set of J. curcas in the uncovered experiment plants. Thereby, enhancement the three pollinator insects as part of crop management have to be considered by farmers.
Basic Level of Categorization in Macaca fascicularis
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Human brain posseses the ability to create a concept to assist the process of grouping individual object or events into different classes or categories. We call this grouping process as categorization. In addition to humans, the ability to categorize has also been proposed for animals. Being able to identify, visually or otherwise, a new object as a member of a category is an advantage for animals. Present experiment aims to test the categorization ability in discriminating species by Macaca fascicularis. Using match-to-sample task with photographs of monkeys and human as stimuli, we tested whether monkeys able to categorize monkey individuals as a class against human individuals as another class. We found that monkeys categorized humans differently from monkeys. The monkeys used physical characteristic such as shape and colors from the photographs to create different concepts of human and monkeys.
Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae)
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa) planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination.
The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Growth of body size (body height and body weight) and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3%) but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%). They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.
Food Preference of Semi-Provisioned Macaques Based on Feeding Duration and Foraging Party Size
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: The long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis; also called crab-eating monkeys) have broad geographic distribution in continent and archipelago of Southeast Asia. They have wide ecological plasticity to adapt to various environments. Due to disturbance of habitat and intensive contact with human, long-tailed macaques change their feeding behavior. Here we present food preferences of long-tailed macaques that live in Cikakak Monkey Park in Central Java. By recording the number of individuals who fed on a food patch and the duration of eating the food, we found that proportion of their food from natural resources is greater than those from human sources. They shifted to omnivory feeding mode to adapt to the changing environment. At many times, this omnivorous feeding brought forth crop-raiding which were not in natural behavioral repertory. Conservation effort of long-tailed macaques, and primate in general, should consider the aspect of human-modulated behavior in feeding ecology if we wish to be successful.
Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution
Akiko Takenaka, Shin Nakamura, Fusako Mitsunaga, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Toshifumi Udono, Bambang Suryobroto
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043461
Abstract: Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods.
Association of Sexual Maturation and Body Size of Arfak Children
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2012,
Abstract: Gonad maturation in pubertal girls and boys is accompanied with somatic growth spurt, changes in quantity and distribution of body fat (BF), development of secondary sex characters, and relevant physiological events. Menarche (first event of menstruation) and spermarche (first event of nocturnal sperm emission) are usually used as indicators of gonad maturation. We found that median age at menarche of Arfak girls in Manokwari, West Papua is 12.2 years, while median age at spermarche of boys is 13.6 years. A possible factor causing young age at menarche is due to adaptation to unstable environmental conditions because of high risk of mortality by malaria disease during childhood. The events of menarche and spermarche achieved one year after the peak body height (BH) velocity, and just before or at the same time with the time of maximum growth rate of body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and BF. The average BMI of Arfak girls was big at 21.9 kg/m2 at the time of their menarche. Bigger average BMI might be caused by prepubertal slowing down of BH growth compare to growth of BW whichis still increasing. Girls accumulate BF before puberty to be used as an energy reserve for the occurrence of menarche. At the time of development of secondary sexual characters girls use the fat reserve so it decline sharply after puberty. In boys, growth rate of BF was stopped at 11 years old, and then growing negatively presumably because boys use fat mass for the occurence of spemarche. BF growth rate reached the lowest point at the age 16 years old, and then increase linearly with age through adolescence until adulthood at age 23 years old.
Gene conversion and purifying selection shape nucleotide variation in gibbon L/M opsin genes
Tomohide Hiwatashi, Akichika Mikami, Takafumi Katsumura, Bambang Suryobroto, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Boripat Siriaroonrat, Hiroki Oota, Shunji Goto, Shoji Kawamura
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-312
Abstract: Among 152 individuals representing three genera (Hylobates, Nomascus and Symphalangus), all had both L and M opsin genes and no L/M hybrid genes. Among 94 individuals subjected to the detailed DNA sequencing, the nucleotide divergence between L and M opsin genes in the exons was significantly higher than the divergence in introns in each species. The ratio of the inter-LM divergence to the intra-L/M polymorphism was significantly lower in the introns than that in synonymous sites. When we reconstructed the phylogenetic tree using the exon sequences, the L/M gene duplication was placed in the common ancestor of catarrhines, whereas when intron sequences were used, the gene duplications appeared multiple times in different species. Using the GENECONV program, we also detected that tracts of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes occurred mostly within the intron regions.These results indicate the historical accumulation of gene conversions between L and M opsin genes in the introns in gibbons. Our study provides further support for the homogenizing role of gene conversion between the L and M opsin genes and for the purifying selection against such homogenization in the central exons to maintain the spectral difference between L and M opsins in non-human catarrhines.In catarrhine primates (humans, apes and Old World monkeys) the L and M opsin genes are closely juxtaposed on the X chromosome and, in combination with the autosomal S opsin gene, enable routinely trichromatic color vision [1,2]. The L and M opsin genes have a close evolutionary relationship and are highly similar in nucleotide sequence (~96% identity). Among 15 amino acid differences between the human L and M opsin genes, three account for the main shifts in spectral sensitivities and tuning [3-9].The organization of the L and M opsin genes among humans is known to be variable and includes the absence of an L or M opsin gene or the presence of L/M hybrid genes with an intermediate spectral sensitivit
Basic Knowledge and Reasoning Process in the Art Creation  [PDF]
Bambang Sunarto
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.55036
Abstract: Basically, process in the art creation is supported by three pillars of existence, namely 1) activity, 2) method, and 3) knowledge. In the application of activities, methods, and knowledge are always accompanied by the reasoning of the creators of art. Reasoning is used to obtain formulation of practical knowledge, productive knowledge, and theoretical knowledge of an object. The creators in directing its attention to the target of creation use a set of logically interrelated concepts, supported by reasoning in varied models. Substance of reasoning contains of several elements, i.e., confidence, the will to work, models, concepts, methods of concept application and the artwork. The mastery of reasoning and the material elements of reasoning are important issues in the development of pillars of artwork creation.
Use of the Language Laboratory in the Communicative Methodology
Bambang Sugeng
TEFLIN Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Abstract : The language laboratory has almost been forgotten lately partly due to intensive implementation of the communicative meth-odology in language teaching. This is unfortunate considering that, as a medium of instruction, the language laboratory is, like all other media, a means of reaching a goal. In this scheme, use of the language lab remains relevant. In order for the language lab to suit the commu-nicative purposes certain requirements need to be fulfilled. First, since the goal of the communicative methodology is directed to communi-cative competence, the use of the language lab should be directed for this purpose. Second, a design should be attempted where use of the language laboratory will expose students with authentic language usc.Third, instructional strategics should be in concord with the coma€‘ municative principles such as communicative gaps, pre- and post-activities, and othcrs.Finally, lessons should be built integratively. Examples are given illustrating integration of the listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in lesson units.
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