Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2020 ( 22 )

2019 ( 228 )

2018 ( 241 )

2017 ( 242 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144562 matches for " B. Vollmer "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /144562
Display every page Item
A holistic view on ram pressure stripping in the Virgo cluster - The first complete model-based time sequence
B. Vollmer
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200911892
Abstract: Based on a comparison of dynamical models with observations of the interstellar gas in 6 Virgo cluster spiral galaxies a first complete ram pressure stripping time sequence has been established. The observational characteristics of the different stages of ram pressure stripping are presented. The dynamical models yield the 3D velocity vectors of the galaxies, peak ram pressures, and times to peak ram pressure. In the case of a smooth, static, and spherical intracluster medium, peak ram pressure occurs during the galaxy's closest approach to the cluster center, i.e. when the galaxy's velocity vector is perpendicular to its distance vector from the cluster center (M 87). Assuming this condition the galaxy's present line-of-sight distance and its 3D position during peak ram pressure can be calculated. The linear orbital segments derived in this way together with the intracluster medium density distribution derived from X-ray observations give estimates of the ram pressure that are on average a factor of 2 higher than derived from the dynamical simulations for NGC 4501, NGC 4330, and NGC 4569. Resolving this discrepancy would require either a 2 times higher intracluster medium density than derived from X-ray observations, or a 2 times higher stripping efficiency than assumed by the dynamical models. Compared to NGC 4501, NGC 4330, and NGC 4569, NGC 4388 requires a still 2 times higher local intracluster medium density or a direction which is moderately different from that derived from the dynamical model. A possible scenario for the dynamical evolution of NGC 4438 and M 86 within the Virgo cluster is presented.
NGC 4654: gravitational interaction or ram pressure stripping?
B. Vollmer
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021729
Abstract: The Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4654 is supposed to be a good candidate for ongoing ram pressure stripping based on its very asymmetric HI distribution. However, this galaxy also shows an asymmetric stellar distribution. Numerical simulations using ram pressure as the only perturbation can produce a tail structure of the gas content, but cannot account for its kinematical structure. It is shown that a strong edge-on stripping event can produce an asymmetric stellar distribution up to 800 Myr after the stripping event, i.e. the galaxy's closest passage to the cluster center. Simulations using a gravitational interaction with the companion galaxy NGC 4639 can account for the asymmetric stellar distribution of NGC 4654, but cannot reproduce the observed extended gas tail. Only a mixed interaction, gravitational and ram pressure, can reproduce all observed properties of NGC 4654. It is concluded that NGC 4654 had a tidal interaction ~500 Myr ago and is continuing to experience ram pressure.
Atomic gas far away from the Virgo cluster core galaxy NGC 4388. A possible link to isolated star formation in the Virgo cluster?
B. Vollmer,W. Huchtmeier
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030516
Abstract: We have discovered 6 10^7 M_{\odot} of atomic gas at a projected distance greater than 4' (20 kpc) from the highly inclined Virgo spiral galaxy NGC 4388. This gas is most probably connected to the very extended H\alpha plume detected by Yoshida et al. (2002). Its mass makes a nuclear outflow and its radial velocity a minor merger as the origin of the atomic and ionized gas very unlikely. A numerical ram pressure simulation can account for the observed HI spectrum and the morphology of the H\alpha plume. An additional outflow mechanism is still needed to reproduce the velocity field of the inner H\alpha plume. The extraplanar compact HII region recently found by Gerhard et al. (2002) can be explained as a stripped gas cloud that collapsed and decoupled from the ram pressure wind due to its increased surface density. The star-forming cloud is now falling back onto the galaxy.
Turbulent viscosity in clumpy accretion disks II supernova driven turbulence in the Galaxy
B. Vollmer,T. Beckert
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030436
Abstract: An analytical model for a turbulent clumpy gas disk is presented where turbulence is maintained by the energy input due to supernovae. Expressions for the disk parameters, global filling factors, molecular fractions, and star formation rates are given as functions of the Toomre parameter $Q$, the ratio between the cloud size and the turbulent driving length scale $\delta$, the mass accretion rate within the disk $\dot{M}$, the constant of molecule formation $\alpha$, the disk radius, the angular velocity, and its radial derivative. Two different cases are investigated: a dominating stellar disk and a self-gravitating gas disk in $z$ direction. The turbulent driving wavelength is determined in a first approach by energy flux conservation, i.e. the supernovae energy input is transported by turbulence to smaller scales where it is dissipated. The results are compared to those of a fully gravitational model. For Q=1 and $\delta=1$ both models are consistent with each other. In a second approach the driving length scale is directly determined by the size of supernovae remnants. Both models are applied to the Galaxy and can reproduce its integrated and local gas properties. The influence of thermal and magnetic pressure on the disk structure is investigated. We infer $Q \sim 1$ and $\dot{M} \sim 0.05 - 0.1 M_{\odot} yr ^{-1}$ for the Galaxy.
Sustaining star formation rates in spiral galaxies - Supernova-driven turbulent accretion disk models applied to THINGS galaxies
B. Vollmer,A. Leroy
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/141/1/24
Abstract: Gas disks of spiral galaxies can be described as clumpy accretion disks without a coupling of viscosity to the actual thermal state of the gas. The model description of a turbulent disk consisting of emerging and spreading clumps (Vollmer & Beckert 2003) contains free parameters, which can be constrained by observations of molecular gas, atomic gas and the star formation rate for individual galaxies. Radial profiles of 18 nearby spiral galaxies from THINGS, HERACLES, SINGS, and GALEX data are used to compare the observed star formation efficiency, molecular fraction, and velocity dispersion to the model. The observed radially decreasing velocity dispersion can be reproduced by the model. In the framework of this model the decrease in the inner disk is due to the stellar mass distribution which dominates the gravitational potential. Introducing a radial break in the star formation efficiency into the model improves the fits significantly. This change in star formation regime is realized by replacing the free fall time in the prescription of the star formation rate with the molecule formation timescale. Depending on the star formation prescription, the break radius is located near the transition region between the molecular-gas-dominated and atomic-gas-dominated parts of the galactic disk or closer to the optical radius. It is found that only less massive galaxies (log (M (M_solar)) <~ 10) can balance gas loss via star formation by radial gas accretion within the disk. These galaxies can thus access their gas reservoirs with large angular momentum. On the other hand, the star formation of massive galaxies is determined by the external gas mass accretion rate from a putative spherical halo of ionized gas or from satellite accretion.
Turbulent viscosity in clumpy accretion disks. Application to the Galaxy
B. Vollmer,T. Beckert
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011640
Abstract: The equilibrium state of a turbulent clumpy gas disk is analytically investigated. The disk consists of distinct self-gravitating clouds. Gravitational cloud-cloud interactions transfer energy over spatial scales and produce a viscosity, which allows mass accretion in the gas disk. Turbulence is assumed to be generated by instabilities involving self-gravitation and to be maintained by the energy input from differential rotation and mass transfer. Disk parameters, global filling factors, molecular fractions, and star formation rates are derived. The application of our model to the Galaxy shows good agreement with observations. They are consistent with the scenario where turbulence generated and maintained by gravitation can account for the viscosity in the gas disk of spiral galaxies. The role of the galaxy mass for the morphological classification of spiral galaxies is investigated.
The dynamics of the Circumnuclear Disk and its environment in the Galactic centre
B. Vollmer,W. J. Duschl
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020422
Abstract: We address the question of the dynamics in the inner 50 pc of the Galactic Centre. In a first step we investigate the cloud-cloud collision rate in the Circumnuclear Disk (CND) with the help of a three dimensional N-body code using gas particles that can have inelastic collisions. The CND might be a longer lived structure than previously assumed. The whole disk-like structure of the CND can thus survive for several million years. A realistic simulation of the CND shows the observed disk height structure. In a second step the environment of the CND is taken into account. Retrograde and prograde encounters of a cloud of several 10^4 M_solar falling onto an already existing nuclear disk using different energy loss rates per collision are simulated. The influence of the energy loss rate per collision on the evolution of the mass accretion and cloud collision rates is strongest for a prograde encounter. A composite data cube of two different snapshots of a prograde encounter together with the CND shows striking similarity with the observed Sgr A cloud complex. The current appearance of the Galactic Centre environment can thus be explained by at least two dynamically distinct features together with the CND. The current mass accretion rate within the CND ranges between 10^-3 and 10^-4 M_solar yr^-1. It can rise up to several 10^-2 M_solar yr^-1 during massive accretion events.
The quenching of star formation in accretion-driven clumpy turbulent tori of active galactic nuclei
B. Vollmer,R. I. Davies
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321409
Abstract: Galactic gas-gas collisions involving a turbulent multiphase ISM share common ISM properties: dense extraplanar gas visible in CO, large linewidths (>= 50 km/s), strong mid-infrared H_2 line emission, low star formation activity, and strong radio continuum emission. Gas-gas collisions can occur in the form of ICM ram pressure stripping, galaxy head-on collisions, compression of the intragroup gas and/or galaxy ISM by an intruder galaxy which flies through the galaxy group at a high velocity, or external gas accretion on an existing gas torus in a galactic center. We suggest that the common theme of all these gas-gas interactions is adiabatic compression of the ISM leading to an increase of the turbulent velocity dispersion of the gas. The turbulent gas clouds are then overpressured and star formation is quenched. Within this scenario we developed a model for turbulent clumpy gas disks where the energy to drive turbulence is supplied by external infall or the gain of potential energy by radial gas accretion within the disk. The cloud size is determined by the size of a C-type shock propagating in dense molecular clouds with a low ionization fraction at a given velocity dispersion. We give expressions for the expected volume and area filling factors, mass, density, column density, and velocity dispersion of the clouds. The latter is based on scaling relations of intermittent turbulence whose open parameters are estimated for the CND in the Galactic Center. The properties of the model gas clouds and the external mass accretion rate necessary for the quenching of the star formation rate due to adiabatic compression are consistent with those derived from high-resolution H_2 line observations. Based on these findings, a scenario for the evolution of gas tori in galactic centers is proposed and the implications for star formation in the Galactic Center are discussed.
The stability of the Circumnuclear Disk clouds in the Galactic Centre
B. Vollmer,W. J. Duschl
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20011082
Abstract: The influence of rotation and magnetic fields on the physical properties of isothermal gas clouds is discussed. The presence of rotation and/or magnetic fields results in an increase of the critical cloud mass with respect to gravitational instability for clouds of a given temperature and external pressure. Rotating clouds have higher densities. Consequently, they are more stable against tidal shear than non-rotating clouds. They can approach the Galactic Centre up to a radius of ~2 pc without being disrupted by the tidal shear due to the gravitational potential. For smaller radii the clouds either collapse or become tidally disrupted. We suggest that this mechanism is responsible for the formation of the inner edge of the Circumnuclear Disk in the Galactic Centre.
A cloudy model for the Circumnuclear Disk in the Galactic Centre
B. Vollmer,W. J. Duschl
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20000425
Abstract: We present a first attempt to construct an analytic model for a clumped gas and dust disk and apply it to the Galactic Centre. The clumps are described as isothermal spheres partially ionized by the external UV radiation field. The disk structure formed by the clouds is described as a quasi standard continuous accretion disk using adequately averaged parameters of the discrete cloud model. The viscosity in the Circumnuclear Disk is due to partially inelastic cloud-cloud collisions. We find two different solutions for the set of equations corresponding to two stable cloud regimes: (i) the observed molecular clouds and (ii) much lighter and smaller clouds which correspond to the stripped cores of the observed clouds. It is shown that the resulting physical characteristics of the heavy clouds and the disk are in very good agreement with all comparable observations at multiple wavelengths. A mass accretion rate of approx. 10^-4 M_solar/yr for the isolated Circumnuclear Disk is inferred. We propose that the Circumnuclear Disk has a much longer lifetime (approx. 10^7 yr) than previously assumed.
Page 1 /144562
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.