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The paper examines recent episodes of government involvement in corporate debt restructurings. It argues that corporate debt restructuring is an important step toward recovery from a financial crisis. Due to interlinkages between the balance sheets of corporations and the financial sector, without an effective corporate debt restructuring, bank lending is likely to remain constrained. We then discuss the rationale for, and modalities of, the state intervention in corporate debt workouts through reviewing six countries with large scale corporate debt workouts. Case studies reveal that the costs of corporate sector rescue are significant and in several cases on par with the costs of financial sector support. The paper sheds light on the importance of contingent liabilities and associated risks to government balance sheet from the corporate debt side and draws conclusions that point to the need for improved surveillance and governance going forward.
Companies aim to win customers loyalty by establishing long-term relationship with them. Relationship Marketing techniques as the marketing execution arms secure the existing customer retention and meet customers’ needs and win their trust through a high quality relationship which eventually leads to their loyalty. Loyal customers, despite environmental factors and advertisement of competitors, tend to repurchase from the firm and guarantee its profitability in today’s turbulent market. This research, following review of the prior research and collecting information from reliable sources, investigates the relationship of music on behavior of apparel consumers in the city of Tehran. In fact, present research seeks to answer the question as whether music exercises any influence in behavior of apparel consumers. The required data were gathered based on the research theoretical framework and through the distribution of 450 questionnaires among apparel buyers and consumers over city of Tehran. From 450 distributed questionnaires, 434 were appropriately filled and used for analysis. Using multivariate linear regression test the research hypotheses were examined. The results indicated that music broadcasting had no significant effect on the amount of time spent for search in attire store by the buyers, and an inverse correlation was found between music playing and the variable tendency repurchase and to recommend the store to others. The results of the regression tables report an adjusted R2 of 0.013, indicating the sum of independent variables explains only 1.3% of the total variance of the dependent variable and the rest of the variance is explained by other factors.