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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 316092 matches for " B. P. Bhattarai "
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Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Leaf Nutrient Status of Walnut (Juglans regia L.)
B. P. Bhattarai,C. S. Tomar
Nepal Journal of Science and Technology , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825
Abstract: The study was conducted at 10 - years- old walnut orchard at Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni-Solan(H.P.) to find out the effect of integrated nutrient management on leaf nutrient status of walnut ( Juglans regia L.). There were 13 different treatment combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Treatments were applied on per tree basis. Among the treatments recommended dose of NPK +50kg vermicompost and three fourth recommended dose of NPK+68.75kg vermicompost were effective for improvement of leaf nutrient status. Key words: NPK; Neem cake; Vermicompost; Leaf nutrient DOI: 10.3126/njst.v10i0.2825 Nepal Journal of Science and Technology Volume 10, 2009 December Page: 63-67 ? ?
Drug use pattern in Primary Health Care facilities of Kaski District, Western Nepal
P Dahal,B Bhattarai,D Adhikari,R Shrestha,SR Baral,N Shrestha
Sunsari Technical College Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/stcj.v1i1.8652
Abstract: Background: Drug utilization research has been defined by the WHO as .the marketing, distribution, prescription and use of drugs in a society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social and economic consequences. Several studies of drug utilization conducted in many developed countries shows wide evidence of irrational drug use. Objectives: To assess the drug use pattern in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities of Kaski district, Western Nepal. Methods : A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 11 PHC facilities of Kaski district using WHO core drug use indicators. Results: A total of 301 prescriptions was analyzed. The average age of patients visiting PHC was 33.11 years (female 35.79; male 30.40). The average number of drugs prescribed was 2.29. Percentage of encounters with at least one antibiotic prescribed was 57% whereas encounters with at least one injection prescribed was low 3%. The total percentage of drugs prescribed using generic names was found to be 59.02% and percentage of drugs prescribed from EDL was 85.19% respectively. The average consultation and dispensing time of 109 patients was 2.02 minutes and 42.52 seconds. Only 30% of patients had adequate knowledge of drug whereas none of the drugs were adequately labeled. Percentage of drugs actually dispensed was 89.63%. All health facilities had availability of Essential Drug List (EDL). The total percentage of availability of key drugs in study PHCs was 89.69%. Conclusion: The study shows trend toward irrational practice mainly on antibiotics use and non- generic prescribing in most facilities studied. Patient care provided by health facilities studied was insufficient and thus effective intervention program for promotion of rational drug use practice is recommended in PHC facilities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/stcj.v1i1.8652 Sunsari Technical College Journal Vol.1(1) 2012 1-8
Study of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Gram positive organisms causing UTI in a tertiary care hospital in eastern region of Nepal
Ratna Baral,S Timilsina,P Jha,NR Bhattarai,N Poudyal,R Gurung,B Khanal,SK Bhattachary
Health Renaissance , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/hren.v11i2.8218
Abstract: Background : Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most important cause of mortality and morbidity affecting all age groups with an estimated 150 million cases occurring globally per year. Resistance to antibiotics is highly prevalent in bacterial isolates causing UTI. Objectives : To observe the isolation of gram positive bacteria causing UTIs and determine their resistance pattern to antibiotics. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in BPKIHS from August 2009- August 2010. A total of 11022 urine samples from patients who visited BPKIHS were analyzed. All specimens were inoculated on routine culture media. Bacterial isolates were identified by conventional bacteriological methods. Susceptibility testing was performed by standard methods as recommended by clinical laboratory standard institute. Results: A total of 459 gram positive uropathogens were isolated. Altogether 5 different gram positive bacteria were isolated among which Staphylococcus aureus (47%) was the most predominant organism followed by Enterococcus species (34%), Enterococcus faecalis (18%), and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (1%). UTI caused by gram positive uropathogens was seen in 68.8% females as compared to 31.2% males. Multidrug resistance (MDR) isolates accounted for 308 out of 459 isolates (67.10%). Multidrug resistance was commonest with Enterococcus spp (71.5%) followed by Streptococcus spp (66.6%). Drugs, which retained usefulness for Gram-positive isolates were vancomycin, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Conclusion : The study revealed that bacterial resistance in gram positive uropathogens in tertiary hospital in eastern region continues to be a great problem. So, regular monitoring of emergence of resistance is highly recommended and specific antibiotics should be given only after the laboratory results are available. Health Renaissance, January-April 2013; Vol. 11 No.1; 119-124 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/hren.v11i2.8218
The Passivation Behavior of Carbon Steel Rods of Nepal in Different Media
J. Bhattarai,A. Kafle,N. P. Bhattarai
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2007, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v22i0.520
Abstract: The passivation behavior of carbon steel rods of Nepal is studied in 1 M HCl, 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M NaOH solutions at 25°C, open to air using corrosion tests and electrochemical measurements. The corrosion rate of all the examined steel rods is significantly lower in 1 M NaOH solution (about 10 -3 mm/y) than those in 0.5 M NaCl (about 10 -2 mm/y) and 1 M HCl (about 10 1 -10 2 mm/y) solutions. The corrosion rate of SR71 steel rod is remarkably lower (3.65 mm/y) than those of other four different steel rods (3-4 x 10 2 mm/y) of Nepal in 1 M HCl solution. The ennoblement of the open circuit potentials of all the examined steel rod specimens is clearly observed in 1 M NaOH solution than those in 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M HCl solutions. The open circuit potentials of the steel rods are in the passive potential regions of the iron wire in 1 M NaOH solution. Therefore, steel rods of different companies of Nepal showed significantly high corrosion resistance in 1 M NaOH solution at 25°C. DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v22i0.520 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Vol. 22, 2007 pp.34-40
Recurrent parotitis in children
Bhattarai M,Wakode P
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2006,
Abstract: Recurrent parotitis is an uncommon condition in children. Its etiological factors have not been proved till date although causes due to genetic inheritance, local autoimmune manifestation, allergy, viral infection and immunodeficiency have been suggested. The exact management of this disorder is not yet standardized, but a conservative approach is preferred and all affected children should be screened for Sjogren′s syndrome and immune deficiency including human immunodeficiency virus. We report a 12 years female child who presented with 12 episodes of non-painful recurrent swellings of the bilateral parotid gland in the past 3 years.
Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine
M. Rajbhandari,R. Mentel,P. K. Jha,R. P. Chaudhary,S. Bhattarai,M. B. Gewali,N. Karmacharya,M. Hipper,U. Lindequist
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem156
Abstract: Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.
The Electrochemical and Surface Studies of the Corrosion Behavior of Sputter-deposited W-Ni Alloys in 0.5 M NaCl Solution
S. P. Sah,Jagadish Bhattarai
Journal of Nepal Chemical Society , 2009, DOI: 10.3126/jncs.v23i0.2096
Abstract: The corrosion behavior of the sputter-deposited amorphous or/and nanocrystalline W-Ni alloys is studied in neutral 0.5 M NaCl solution at 25oC, open to air using immersion tests, electrochemical measurements and confocal scanning laser microscopic (CSLM) techniques. In general, the corrosion rates of the W-Ni alloys containing less than 20 at% nickel content are slightly lower than that of tungsten metal whereas the corrosion rates of the alloys containing 20 at% nickel or more increased with the addition of nickel in the alloys. The pitting corrosion is observed in the nickel-rich W-69Ni alloy from CSLM studies. The open circuit corrosion potentials of all the examined W-Ni alloys are shifted to noble direction with the addition of nickel content in the alloys.
Investigation of Rotavirus Survival in Different Soil Fractions and Temperature Conditions  [PDF]
Paul C. Davidson, Theresa B. Kuhlenschmidt, Rabin Bhattarai, Prasanta K. Kalita, Mark S. Kuhlenschmidt
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A001
Abstract:

Rotavirus is a leading cause of gastrointestinal illness worldwide. Rotavirus transmission occurs fecalorally, and becomes a critical water quality issue when soil and water resources are contaminated with feces. Transport of pathogens to surface water sources depends on their survival in the soil, especially considering the fact that large amounts of fecal material are often applied to agricultural lands as fertilizer. In this study, rotavirus survival was investigated in three different soil fractions and at three different temperatures (4℃, 25 and 37). A rotavirus suspension was mixed with whole soil, sand, and clay and allowed to incubate for up to 18 days. Samples were collected daily to investigate virus survival over time, which was quantified using a tissue-culture infectivity assay. Results indicated, in the absence of any soil particles, rotavirus survival was highest at 4, with survival decreasing as temperature increased. These data also indicated whole soil had some protective effect, allowing rotavirus to survive better in soil for the entire range of temperatures and for more than a week at 37. The results also showed that sand fractions were the most effective media for reducing rotavirus recovery at all temperature conditions tested. Although the mechanism responsible for the low recovery from sand is unknown, there is little or no infective rotavirus extracted from sand fractions. This finding strongly supports the use of sand as a filtering material to remove rotavirus from both point and nonpoint sources of water pollution.

Preemptive use of Small Dose Fentanyl Suppresses Fentanyl Induced Cough
SK Shrestha,B Bhattarai,RS Shah
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v10i4.10988
Abstract: Background Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, is a popular choice amongst anaesthesiologists in the operating room. Pre induction intravenous fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28 – 65% of patients. Fentanyl induced cough is not always benign and can be remarkably troublesome at the most critical moment of anaesthesia when airway reflex is lost. Objectives To study the effect of pre emptive use of minimal dose fentanyl through the peripheral venous cannulae on the incidence of cough by a larger bolus of intravenous fentanyl. Methods One hundred and fifty patients aged 18 -75 years undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomized into three groups of 50 each. The first group received 0.5 ml saline 0.9 % intravenously one minute prior to the administration of fentanyl 150μg (3 ml); the second group received pre emptive fentanyl 25μg(0.5ml) prior to the administration of fentanyl 125μg(2.5ml); and the third group received preemptive fentanyl 25 μg(0.5ml), followed by the administration of fentanyl 150μg(3ml).. Based on the number of coughs observed, cough severity was graded as mild(1-2), moderate (3-5),or severe (>5). Results The incidence of fentanyl induced cough was significantly lower in both pre emptive group 4(8%) for 125μg fentanyl and 7(14%) for 150μg than in the saline group 15(30%). Conclusion Pre- emptive use of minimal dose fentanyl 25μg administered one minute before a larger bolus dose of fentanyl (125 or 150μg ) can effectively suppress cough. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v10i4.10988 Kathmandu Univ Med J 2012;10(4):16-19
Psychosocial impact on puberphonic and effectiveness of voice therapy: A case report
B Bhattarai,A Shrestha,Sunil Kumar Shah
Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/jcmsn.v6i1.3605
Abstract: Puberphonia is a rare disorder, in which the patient manifests higher register voice than others of their same age group. Manifestation is less in women than men. The prevalence is 1 in 900,000. Apart from impact on voice of patient, puberphonia also has impact on the psycho-social aspect. Different treatment modalities have been put forward in the past, many of which lack validity and EBP. Voice therapy has proven to be the most effective in the management of puberphonia. Voice Handicap Index (VHI) is a tool for assessing the perceived handicap by the patient. VHI has 3 parts and overall score of 120 and individual subset has score of 40 each. Result: Patient who received voice therapy obtained better score on the overall scale as well as on each subsets of the VHI. Conclusion: The study concludes that the voice therapy not only improves the voice quality of the patient, but also improves the quality of life of the patient. The impact of voice disorder (puberphonia) is most prominent on the emotional section. Keywords : Puberphonia; voice therapy; VHI. DOI: 10.3126/jcmsn.v6i1.3605 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2010, Vol. 6, No. 1, 57-62
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