Abstract:
We study the deuteron electrodisintegration with inclusion of the neutral currents focusing on the helicity asymmetry of the exclusive cross section in coplanar geometry. We stress that a measurement of this asymmetry in the quasi elastic region is of interest for an experimental determination of the weak form factors of the nucleon, allowing one to obtain the parity violating electron neutron asymmetry. Numerically, we consider the reaction at low momentum transfer and discuss the sensitivity of the helicity asymmetry to the strangeness radius and magnetic moment. The problems coming from the finite angular acceptance of the spectrometers are also considered.

Abstract:
Outgoing nucleon polarization in exclusive deuteron electrodisintegration is studied at the quasi-elastic peak in the standard theory with emphasis on the effect of nucleonic and pionic relativistic corrections. The cases of polarized beam or/and polarized target are considered. Sizeable relativistic effects are pointed out in several polarization components. The sensitivity of nucleon polarization to the neutron charge form factor $G_E^n$ is discussed. In particular, it is shown that the longitudinal component of neutron polarization with vector polarized deuterons is as sensitive to $G_E^n$ as the sideways beam polarization transfer.

Abstract:
Starting from chiral Lagrangians, possessing the SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R local chiral symmetry, we derive weak axial one-boson exchange currents in the leading order in the 1/M expansion (M is the nucleon mass). We apply these currents in calculations of the cross sections for the disintegration of the deuterons by the low energy neutrinos. The nuclear wave functions are derived from a variant of the OBEPQB potential and from the Nijmegen 93 and Nijmegen I nucleon-nucleon interactions. The comparison of our cross sections with those obtained within the pionless effective field theory and other potential model calculations shows that the solar neutrino-deuteron cross sections can be calculated within an accuracy of 3.3 %.

Abstract:
Starting from the axial heavy meson exchange currents, constructed earlier in conjunction with the Bethe--Salpeter equation, we first present the axial $\rho$--, $\omega$-- and $a_1$ meson exchange Feynman amplitudes that satisfy the partial conservation of the axial current. Employing these amplitudes, we derive the corresponding weak axial heavy meson exchange currents in the leading order in the 1/M expansion ($M$ is the nucleon mass), suitable for the nuclear physics calculations beyond the threshold energies and with wave functions obtained by solving the Schr\"odinger equation with one--boson exchange potentials. The constructed currents obey the nuclear form of the partial conservation of the axial current. We apply the space component of these currents in calculations of the cross sections for the disintegration of deuterons by low energy (anti)neutrinos. The deuteron and the final state nucleon--nucleon wave functions are derived (i) from a variant of the OBEPQB potential, and (ii) from the Nijmegen 93 and Nijmegen I nucleon-nucleon interaction. The extracted values of the constant $L_{1, A}$, entering the axial exchange currents of the pionless effective field theory, are in a reasonable agreement with its value predicted by the dimensional analysis.

Abstract:
We analyze the parity-violating (PV) components of the analyzing power in elastic electron-proton scattering and discuss their sensitivity to the strange quark contributions to the proton weak form factors. We point out that the component of the analyzing power along the momentum transfer is independent of the electric weak form factor and thus compares favorably with the PV beam asymmetry for a determination of the strangeness magnetic moment. We also show that the transverse component could be used for constraining the strangeness radius. Finally, we argue that a measurement of both components could give experimental information on the strangeness axial charge.

Abstract:
The structure of the weak axial pion exchange current is discussed in various models. It is shown how the interplay of the chiral invariance and the double counting problem restricts uniquely the form of the pion potential term, in the case when the nuclear dynamics is described by the Schroedinger equation with the static nucleon-nucleon potential.

Abstract:
Model dependence of the reaction rates for the weak breakup of deuterons by low energy neutrinos is studied starting from the cross sections derived from potential models and also from pionless effective field theory. Choosing the spread of the reaction yields, caused basically by the different ways the two-body currents are treated, as a measure of the model dependent uncertainty, we conclude that the breakup reactions are $\sim$ 2 - 3 % uncertain, and that even the ratio of the charged to neutral current reaction rates is also $\sim$ 2 % uncertain.

Abstract:
Model dependence of the capture rates of the negative muon capture in deuterium is studied starting from potential models and the weak two-body meson exchange currents constructed in the tree approximation and also from an effective field theory. The tree one-boson exchange currents are derived from the hard pion chiral Lagrangians of the $N \Delta \pi \rho \omega a_1$ system. If constructed in conjunction with the one-boson exchange potentials, the capture rates can be calculated consistently. On the other hand, the effective field theory currents, constructed within the heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory, contain a low energy constant $\hat d ^R$ that cannot be extracted from data at the one-particle level nor determined from the first principles. Comparative analysis of the results for the doublet transition rate allows us to extract the constant $\hat d ^R$.

Abstract:
Model dependence of the reaction rates for the weak breakup of deuterons by low energy neutrinos is studied starting from the cross sections derived from potential models and also from pionless effective field theory. Choosing the spread of the reaction yields, caused basically by the different ways the two-body currents are treated, as a measure of the model dependent uncertainty, we conclude that the breakup reactions are $\sim$ 2 - 3 % uncertain, and that even the ratio of the charged to neutral current reaction rates is also $\sim$ 2 % uncertain.

Abstract:
We report preliminar results on a chemical model implemented in a hydrodynamical cosmological code. We compute the metallicity of the gaseous component in galactic halos at different redshifts. The results compare reasonably well to observations. In particular, we show the predicted metallicity content of today-galaxy progenitors as a function of redshift and confront them with those observed in DLA systems.