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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 145530 matches for " B. Manoj "
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Study of Changes to the Organic Functional Groups of a High Volatile Bituminous Coal during Organic Acid Treatment Process by FTIR Spectroscopy  [PDF]
B. Manoj, Ponni Narayanan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2013.12008

A high volatile bituminous coal was subjected to a series of organic acid treatment in steps using citric acid (1 hr and 2 hr) and buffered EDTA with acetic acid (1 to 3 hr) at room temperature. Leaching was performed with acetic acid (2N) also for 1 hr. Citric acid procedure reduced the mineral matter below 1.94%. Calcites and aluminates are completely removed along with substantial quantity of silicates by citric acid leaching. The change in absorption of organic functional groups and mineral matter in coal samples were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Analysis indicated that oxygen containing species were decreased in the coal structure during acetic acid and citric acid (40%) procedure and buffered EDTA 3 hours leaching. As the period of leaching with buffered EDTA increased from 1 hr to 3 hr, organic functional groups and mineral functional groups decreased its intensity. The results indicated that the described acid treatment procedures with citric acid have measurable effects on the coal structure.

Chemical Solubilization of Coal using HF and Characterization of Products by FTIR, FT Raman, SEM and Elemental Analysis  [PDF]
B. Manoj, A.G. Kunjomana
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2010.910067
Abstract: An examination of the structural features of sub-bituminous coal samples from Godavari coal field, India were carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), FTIR, FT Raman, and elemental analysis. SEM micrograph analysis of virgin coal revealed the features of lithophiles like aluminium, silicates and calcium. To remove minerals and enhance the carbon content, the sample was leached with HF of different concentrations. FT Raman spectra in the range 100 to 3500 cm-1 region were obtained for coal samples. The same sample was recorded with FTIR for comparison purpose. The spectrums were found to have similar broad characteristics. Certain bands were found to be both Raman and IR active. Variation in band intensity and position was found to be sample dependent. Graphite and defect band was observed on the Raman spectrum. The absence of the features corresponding to inorganic elements in HF leached residual samples was an indication of demineralization. The CHNS analysis showed that the oxygen content decreased by 63% when treated with HF (20%) where as carbon content increased by about 29.63%. The calorific value a remarkable increase of 37% with HF (10%) leaching. In the SEM micrograph of leached sample cracks and devolatization holes were observed. Proximate analysis showed a systematic decrease in ash content from 12.87 wt% to 3.06 wt% with leaching. It was evident from the results that Hydrofluoric acid had significant effect in removing the mineral matter and oxygenated functional groups from the coal.
Analytical Study of Two Differently Ranked Coals Using UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy  [PDF]
B. Manoj, A.G. Kunjomana
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1010070
Abstract: The characterization of Indian bituminous and subbituminous coal was performed by UVVisible– NIR spectroscopy. Chemical leaching with varying concentration of hydrofluoric acid was conducted on both the samples. Electronic absorption at this region was higher for higher ranked coals. Chemical leaching increased electronic transitions in subbituminous coal with maximum transitions for HF (10%) leached samples. The absorption maximum of benzeneoxygen system was found between 235-270 nm and was showing a red shift with leaching. The characteristic naphthalene ring systems (220 & 280 nm) were masked by the absorption regions of monoaromatic rings; indicating the content of napthalenoid hydrocarbon was very low. The bands observed in the visible region (450nm) were attributed to SO2 in the sample and was showing a red shift. The weak band at the 680 nm was attributed to the Ⅱ-Ⅱ* electronic transitions of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which also showed red shift with leaching. It was found that the ash content is reduced by 87.5% & 76.2% in bituminous and subbituminous coal respectively with HF (30%) leaching.
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nanocrystalline Zirconium (IV) Tungstate Semiconductor
S. Manoj,B. Beena
Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Nanocrystalline zirconium (IV) tungstate is prepared by chemical coprecipitation method using ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid as the templating agent. Elemental composition is determined by EDS. The characteristic bonding position is identified using FTIR. XRD is used to find the theoritical value of size and phase identification using JCPDS. Morphology is examined using SEM and HRTEM. UV absorption at 260 nm corresponds to an energy gap of 4.48 eV, characteristic of semiconducting nanoparticles.
Chemical Leaching of Low Rank Coal and its Characterization using SEM/EDAX and FTIR  [PDF]
B. Manoj, A.G. Kunjomana, K.A. Chandrasekharan
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.810071
Abstract: Demineralization of coal carried out using EDTA for different time and HF of varying concentration. The residual coal from each treatment was characterized together with virgin coal using Scanning Electron Microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Micrograph and EDAX analysis of Virgin coal reveal the features lithophiles like aluminium, silicates and calcium. The absence of the features corresponding inorganic elements in residual samples is an indication of demineralization. An elemental analyzer was adopted to analyze CHNS on virgin and residual coal sample. The current research compares the leaching efficiency of a mild leachant and a strong leachant. The final analysis showed that the coal under study was sub bituminous coal and leaching could improve the amount of carbonaceous material.
Image Encryption and Decryption using AES
Manoj. B,Manjula N Harihar
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In today’s world most of the communication is done using electronic media. Data Security is widely used to ensure security in communication, data storage and transmission. We have Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) which is accepted as a symmetric cryptography standard for transferring block of data securely. The available AES algorithm is used for text data and it is also suitable for image encryption and decryption to protect the confidential image data from an unauthorized access. This project proposes a method in which the image data is an input to AES Encryption to obtain the encrypted image, and the encrypted image is the input to AES Decryption to get the original image. In this paper, we implement the 128 bit AES for image encryption and decryption which is synthesized and simulated on FPGA family of Spartan-6 (XC6SLX25) using Xilinx ISE 12.4 tool in Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and shall be verified with the help of its simulation result.
Corpus based Emotion Extraction to implement prosody feature in Speech Synthesis Systems
Manoj B Chandak,Swati Bhutekar
International Journal of Computer & Electronics Research , 2012,
Abstract: : This paper presents the methodology to extract emotion from the text at real time and add the expression to the textual contents during speech synthesis. This paper also focuses on implementation of creation of Corpus, emotion recognition module etc. In text analysis, all emotional keywords and emotion modification words are manually defined. To understand the existence of test was carried out on set of textual sentences and preliminary rules written for 34 different emotions. These rules are used in an automated procedure that assigns emotional state values to words. These values are then used by speech synthesizer to add emotions to speech & input sentence. Pitch detection algorithm has been implemented for pitch recognition. The system is language dependent.
Classification and Novel Class Detection in Data Streams Using Strings  [PDF]
Rimjhim Singh, Manoj B. Chandak
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1101507
Abstract: Data streams are continuous and always keep evolving in nature. Because of these reasons it becomes difficult to handle such data with simple and static strategies. Data stream poses four main challenges to researchers. These are infinite length, concept-evolution, concept-drift and feature evolution. Infinite-length is because of the amount of data having no bounds. Concept-drift is due to slow changes in the concept of stream. Concept-evolution occurs due to presence of unknown classes in data. Feature-evolution is because of new features continuously keeping appearing in the stream and older ones start disappearing. For performing any analysis on such data we first need to convert it into some knowledgeable form and also need to handle the above mentioned challenges. Various strategies have been proposed to tackle these difficulties. But most of them focus on handling the problem of infinite-length and concept-drift. In this paper, we make efforts to propose a string based strategy to handle infinite-length, concept-evolution and concept-drift.
Role of Infrared Spectroscopy in Coal Analysis—An Investigation  [PDF]
Manoj Balachandran
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.56044
Abstract: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a widely used analytical technique for determining the different functional groups of a coal structure. This method, being able to reveal carbo-hydrogenated structures (aromatic and aliphatic) and heteroatomic functions (mainly oxygenated), as well as to detect the presence of minerals, is currently one of the most powerful techniques for coal characterization and thus is of paramount importance in the various utilization procedures of coal (industrial combustion, coke production processes, etc.). FT-IR study shows the presence of aliphatic -CH, -CH2 and -CH3 groups, aliphatic C-O-C stretching associated with -OH and -NH stretching vibrations and HCC rocking. It is conjectured that, the two-stage leaching using HNO3 followed by HF remarkably reduced the ash content as well as the minerals including Al, Si and Ca. The solubilization of samples with buffered EDTA could not eliminate the minerals in coal. The silicate and kaolinite bands showed a systematic lowering on EDTA and carboxylic acid treatment. The fungal leaching was most beneficial for aromatic molecules with different degrees of substitution. The intensity of bands due to carbonyl groups was increased, when treated with fungi, whereas that due to oxygen functional groups showed a reverse trend. The mineral bands due to silicates also decreased in intensity, on post treatment with fungal culture.
Changing Wisdom of Metallic Alloys Development  [PDF]
Manoj Gupta
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2018.913074
Abstract: Metallic alloys have been instrumental through the ages in shaping the progress of human civilization. The development of the alloys from ancient to present time initiated from accidents to through the use of well-defined scientific principles. This article provides a snapshot of the alloys development from ancient to present time and the likely future direction.
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