Abstract:
As low power, low cost, and longevity of transceivers are major requirements in wireless sensor networks, optimizing their design under energy constraints is of paramount importance. To this end, we develop quantizers under strict energy constraints to effect optimal reconstruction at the fusion center. Propagation, modulation, as well as transmitter and receiver structures are jointly accounted for using a binary symmetric channel model. We first optimize quantization for reconstructing a single sensor's measurement, and deriving the optimal number of quantization levels as well as the optimal energy allocation across bits. The constraints take into account not only the transmission energy but also the energy consumed by the transceiver's circuitry. Furthermore, we consider multiple sensors collaborating to estimate a deterministic parameter in noise. Similarly, optimum energy allocation and optimum number of quantization bits are derived and tested with simulated examples. Finally, we study the effect of channel coding on the reconstruction performance under strict energy constraints and jointly optimize the number of quantization levels as well as the number of channel uses.

Abstract:
With Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate short-time critical dynamics of the three-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic Ising model with a globally conserved magnetization $m_s$ (not the order parameter). From the power law behavior of the staggered magnetization (the order parameter), its second moment and the auto-correlation, we determine all static and dynamic critical exponents as well as the critical temperature. The universality class of $m_s=0$ is the same as that without a conserved quantity, but the universality class of non-zero $m_s$ is different.

Abstract:
Dynamic relaxation of the XY model and fully frustrated XY model quenched from an initial ordered state to the critical temperature or below is investigated with Monte Carlo methods. Universal power law scaling behaviour is observed. The dynamic critical exponent $z$ and the static exponent $\eta$ are extracted from the time-dependent Binder cumulant and magnetization. The results are competitive to those measured with traditional methods.

Abstract:
The theory of linear acceleration emission is developed for a large amplitude electrostatic wave in which all particles become highly relativistic in much less than a wave period. An Airy integral approximation is shown to apply near the phases where the electric field passes through zero and the Lorentz factors of all particles have their maxima. The emissivity is derived for an individual particle and is integrated over frequency and solid angle to find the power radiated per particle. The result is different from that implied by the generalized Larmor formula which, we argue, is not valid in this case. We also discuss a mathematical inconsistency that arises when one evaluates the power spectrum by integrating the emissivity over solid angle. The correct power spectrum increases as the 4/3rd power of the frequency at low frequencies, and falls off exponentially above a characteristic frequency. We discuss application of linear acceleration emission to the emission of high frequency photons in an oscillating model for pulsars. We conclude that it cannot account for gamma-ray emission, but can play a role in secondary pair creation.

Abstract:
Do 9 out of 10 restaurants fail in their first year, as commonly claimed? No. Survival analysis of 1.9 million longitudinal microdata for 81,000 full-service restaurants in a 20-year U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics non-public census of business establishments in the western US shows that only 17 percent of independently owned full-service restaurant startups failed in their first year, compared with 19 percent for all other service-providing startups. The median lifespan of restaurants is about 4.5 years, slightly longer than that of other service businesses (4.25 years). However, the median lifespan of a restaurant startup with 5 or fewer employees is 3.75 years, slightly shorter than that of other service businesses of the same startup size (4.0 years).

Abstract:
Unburned carbons from fly ash were leached with concentrated HF acid solutions in this study. The mercury adsorption abilities of the treated unburned carbons were examined. Effects of temperature, contact time, preloaded mercury emission and gaseous mercury concentration on adsorption behaviors were investigated. Leached by HF acid solution, unburned carbons were altered both physically and chemically. The influences of structure alteration on adsorption behaviors were also discussed.

Abstract:
Short-time dynamic scaling behavior of the 3D $\pm J$ Ising spin glass is studied by Monte Carlo methods. Starting the replicas with independent initial configurations with a small pseudo magnetization, the dynamic evolution of the overlap q(t) between two replicas is measured. The initial increase of the overlap q(t) is observed and the corresponding exponent $\theta'$ is obtained. From the scaling relation $\lambda =d/z-\theta'$, the dynamic exponent z is estimated.

Abstract:
Lattice QCD is the most reliable non-perturbative method in quantum field theory. In the last few years, some problems crucial to high energy experiments have been solved. We review some recent work done by the Chinese lattice community.

Abstract:
With Monte Carlo methods we investigate the dynamic relaxation of the fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions below or at the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition temperature. Special attention is drawn to the sublattice structure of the dynamic evolution. Short-time scaling behaviour is found and universality is confirmed. The critical exponent $\theta$ is measured for different temperature and with different algorithms.

Abstract:
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we systematically investigate the non-equilibrium dynamics of the chiral degree of freedom in the two-dimensional fully frustrated XY model. The critical initial increase of the staggered chiral magnetization is observed. By means of the short-time dynamics approach, we estimate the second order phase transition temperature $T_{c}$ and all the dynamic and static critical exponents $\theta$, z, $\beta$ and $\nu$.