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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 223440 matches for " B. Liu "
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Evaluation of High-Speed Track Quality Using Dynamic Simulation of Vehicle-Track Interaction  [PDF]
D. Liu, B. Lechner, S. Freudenstein
Journal of Transportation Technologies (JTTs) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jtts.2016.61002
Abstract: Track quality is a determinant factor for evaluating the overall performance of vehicle track interaction with respect to safety, ride quality and maintenance. Important parameters specifying the general quality of the track include track geometry (undamped) and track stiffness (damped), which can be evaluated by measurements taken along with track sections. A new co-simulation model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) and Multi Body Simulation (MBS) is built for the detailed description of track quality and its contribution to vehicle track interaction without simplifying the track structure as interconnected single elements. The simulation models and tools have been validated with the help of measured track geometry, track stiffness and dynamic wheel rail forces along the track sections of high speed lines. A comparative study between high speed lines using conventional ballasted track and ballastless track showed a significantly better quality in ballastless track sections. The dynamic forces which were determined by simulations and verified by measurements along the ballastless track section were comparatively less than the specified limits by German regulations for ballastless track design. Lower levels of dynamic forces can be utilized for optimization of track design and installation procedures with respect to lower initial costs.
An entropic regularization method for solving systems of fuzzy linear inequalities
F. B. Liu
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202204196
Abstract: Solving systems of fuzzy linear inequalities could lead to the solutions of fuzzy linear programs. It is shown that a system of fuzzy linear inequalities can be converted to a regular min-max problem. An entropic regularization method is introduced for solving such a problem. Some computational results are included.
Axillary Bud Proliferation Approach for Plant Biodiversity Conservation and Restoration
F. Ngezahayo,B. Liu
International Journal of Biodiversity , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/727025
Abstract: Due to mainly human population pressure and activities, global biodiversity is getting reduced and particularly plant biodiversity is becoming at high risk of extinction. Consequently, many efforts have been deployed to develop conservation methods. Because it does not involve cell dedifferentiation of differentiated cells but rather the development and growth of new shoots from preexisting meristems, the axillary bud proliferation approach is the method offering least risk of genetic instability. Indeed, meristems are more resistant to genetic changes than disorganized tissues. The present review explored through the scientific literature the axillary bud proliferation approach and the possible somaclonal variation that could arise from it. Almost genetic stability or low level of genetic variation is often reported. On the contrary, in a few cases studied to date, DNA methylation alterations often appeared in the progenies, showing epigenetic variations in the regenerated plants from axillary bud culture. Fortunately, epigenetic changes are often temporary and plants may revert to the normal phenotype. Thus, in the absence of genetic variations and the existence of reverting epigenetic changes over time, axillary bud culture can be adopted as an alternative nonconventional way of conserving and restoring of plant biodiversity. 1. Introduction Global biodiversity is defined as the variation of all life on earth and the ecological complexes in which it occurs [1]. Biodiversity refers to genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity [2, 3] and includes the forest and agricultural ecosystems and the wild animals [4]. Among the above components, plants represent a vital part of biodiversity and healthy ecosystems. They provide multiple ecosystem services including production of oxygen for the rest of living organisms [5, 6], removal of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions in the photosynthesis process, creation and stabilization of soil, protection of watersheds, and provision of natural resources including food, fibre, fuel, shelter, and medicine [7]. They also play an important role in the water cycle and constitute habitat for a wide range of other living organisms. Thus, plants are the basis for life on earth and humans are quite dependent on them [8–10] given that they are fundamental structural and nutrient-sequestering components of most ecosystems. Due to dependency on biodiversity, the number of threatened plant species has gradually increased during the last decade, the maximum being observed in 2011 [11]. The key factor in
Shapes of Semiflexible Polymers in Confined Spaces
Y. Liu,B. Chakraborty
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1478-3975/5/2/026004
Abstract: We investigate the conformations of a semiflexible polymer confined to a square box. Results of Monte Carlo simulations show the existence of a shape transition when the persistence length of the polymer becomes comparable to the dimensions of box. An order parameter is introduced to quantify this behavior. A simple mean-field model is constructed to study the effect of the shape transition on the effective persistence length of the polymer.
How to compute the atomic stress objectively?
B. Liu,X. Qiu
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Atomistic simulation has been a powerful study tool in mechanics research, but how to objectively compute the atomic stress equivalent to Cauchy stress is still controversial, especially on the velocity-related part in the virial stress definition. In this paper, by strictly following the classical definition of the Cauchy stress for continuum medium, the fundamental Lagrangian atomic stress is proposed and can be used to obtain the correct Cauchy stress under any circumstances. Furthermore, the Lagrangian virial stress is proposed, which is still in virial form but does not include velocities to avoid controversial velocity treatments. It is also found that the widely used classical virial stress is actually the Eulerian virial stress, which includes the velocities of atoms, and is valid only when the impulse-momentum theorem is applicable to estimate the internal forces. However this requirement for the Eulerian atomic stress can not always be met in practical cases, such as the material volume element in rotation and the examples presented in this paper, but the proposed Lagrangian atomic stress can avoid these velocity-related nonobjectivities.
Effect of Weak Magnetic Intergranular Phase on the Coercivity in the HDDR Nd-Fe-B Magnet  [PDF]
M. LIU, G. B. HAN, R. W. GAO
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2009.14038
Abstract: Assuming that intergranular phase (IP) existing between adjacent grains is a weak magnetic phase, we study the effect of IP on the coercivity in the HDDR Nd-Fe-B magnet. The results indicate that the coercivity increases with the increasing IP’s thickness d, but decreases with increasing its anisotropy constant K1(0). When the structure defect thickness r0 =6nm, d=1nm and K1(0)=0.15K1 (K1 is the normal anisotropy constant in the inner part of a grain), our calculated coercivity is in agreement with available experimental data.
Spatio-Temporal Variations in the Associations between Hourly PM2.5 and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MODIS Sensors on Terra and Aqua  [PDF]
Minho Kim, Xingyou Zhang, James B. Holt, Yang Liu
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510A2002

Recent studies have explored the relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements by satellite sensors and concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, relatively little is known about spatial and temporal patterns in this relationship across the contiguous United States. In this study, we investigated the relationship between US Environmental Protection Agency estimates of PM2.5 concentrations and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD measurements provided by two NASA satellites (Terra and Aqua) across the contiguous United States during 2005. We found that the combined use of both satellite sensors provided more AOD coverage than the use of either satellite sensor alone, that the correlation between AOD measurements and PM2.5 concentrations varied substantially by geographic location, and that this correlation was stronger in the summer and fall than that in the winter and spring.

On the Buckling of Euler Graphene Beams Subject to Axial Compressive Load  [PDF]
Mohamed B. M. Elgindi, Dongming Wei, Yeran Soukiassian, Yu Liu
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2014.22016
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the buckling of an Euler-Bernoulli graphene beam due to an axial compressive load. We formulate the problem as a non-linear (eigenvalue) two-point boundary value problem, prove some properties of the eigenpairs and introduce a suitable numerical shooting method scheme for approximating them. We present the perturbation and the numerical approximations of the first and second buckling loads and the corresponding shapes.

Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances
J. Liu, B. Zhao,L. Liu
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of total electron content (TEC) retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT) dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle and high latitudes for 20≤Ap<40 and Ap≥40.
Investigating the Disk-Corona Relation in a Blue AGN Sample
Jie-Ying Liu,B. F. Liu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/9/9/003
Abstract: We compile a blue AGN sample from SDSS and investigate the ratio of hard X-ray to bolometric luminosity in dependence on Eddington ratio and black hole mass. Our sample comprises 240 radio-quiet Seyfert 1 galaxies and QSOs. We find that the fraction of hard X-ray luminosity (log$(L_{\rm 2-10 kev}/L_{\rm bol})$) decreases with the increase of Eddington ratio. We also find that the fraction of hard X-ray luminosity is independent on the black hole mass for the radio-quiet AGNs. The relation of log$(L_{\rm 2-10 kev}/L_{\rm bol})$ decreasing with increasing Eddington ratio indicates that X-ray bolometric correction is not a constant, from a larger sample supporting the results of Vasudevan & Fabian (2007). We interpret our results by the disk corona evaporation/condensation model (Meyer et al. \cite{me200}; Liu et al. 2002a; Liu et al. 2007). In the frame of this model, the Compton cooling becomes efficient in cooling of the corona at high accretion rate (in units of Eddington rate), leading to condensation of corona gas to the disk. Consequently, the relative strength of corona to the disk becomes weaker at higher Eddington ratio. Therefore, the fraction of hard X-ray emission to disk emission and hence to the bolometric emission is smaller at higher Eddington ratio. The independence of the fraction of hard X-ray luminosity on the mass of the black hole can also be explained by the disk corona model since the corona structure and luminosity (in units of Eddington luminosity) are independent on the mass of black holes.
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