Abstract:
An earlier elaborated model of the expanding universe with its contentsof dark energy, dark matter and normal matter is reconsideredand extended. The model is found to be reconcilable with the observedcosmical dimensions and with the magnitude of the present acceleratedexpansion. It has the form of a freely expanding cloud of zero-pointenergyphotons, with the inclusion of a small amount of normal matter.On a macroscopic scale, within the radius of the observable universe, themodel has the character of a flat Euclidian geometry, without the needof introducing curved space effects due to General Relativity. This flatgeometry is found to be stable with respect to expansive and compressiveperturbations, thus suggesting the universe to possess an intrinsicmechanism which aims at flat geometry.

Abstract:
A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

Abstract:
A revised Lorentz invariant electromagnetic theory leading beyond Maxwell's equations, and to a form of extended quantum electrodynamics, has been elaborated on the basis of a nonzero electric charge density and a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum state. Among the applications of this theory, there are steady electromagnetic states having no counterpart in conventional theory and resulting in models of electrically charged and neutral leptons, such as the electron and the neutrino. The analysis of the electron model debouches into a point-charge-like geometry with a very small characteristic radius but having finite self-energy. This provides an alternative to the conventional renormalization procedure. In contrast to conventional theory, an integrated radial force balance can further be established in which the electron is prevented from "exploding" under the action of its net self-charge. Through a combination of variational analysis and an investigation of the radial force balance, a value of the electronic charge has been deduced which deviates by only one percent from that obtained in experiments. This deviation requires further investigation. A model of the neutrino finally reproduces some of the basic features, such as a small but nonzero rest mass, an angular momentum but no magnetic moment, and long mean free paths in solid matter.

Abstract:
The local momentum equation of the pure radiation fi eld is considered in terms of an earlier elaborated and revised electromagnetic theory. In this equation the contribution from the volume force is found to vanish in rectangular geometry, and to become nonzero but negligible in cylindrical geometry. Consequently the radiated momentum is due to the Poynting vector only, as in conventional electrodynamics. It results in physically relevant properties of a photon model having an angular momentum (spin). The Poynting vector concept is further compared to the quantized momentum concept for a free particle, as represented by a spatial gradient operator acting on the wave function. However, this latter otherwise successful concept leads to diffi culties in the physical interpretation of known and expected photon properties such as the spin, the negligible loss of transverse momentum across a bounding surface, and the Lorentz invariance.

Abstract:
Conventional theory, as based on Maxwell's equations and associated quantum electrodynamical concepts in the vacuum, includes the condition of zero electric field divergence. In applications to models of the individual photon and to dense light beams such a theory exhibits several discrepancies from experimental evidence. These include the absence of angular momentum (spin), and the lack of spatially limited geometry in the directions transverse to that of the propagation. The present revised theory includes on the other hand a nonzero electric field divergence, and this changes the field equations substantially. It results in an extended quantum electrodynamical approach, leading to nonzero spin and spatially limited geometry for photon models and light beams. The photon models thereby behave as an entirety, having both particle and wave properties and possessing wave-packet solutions which are reconcilable with the photoelectric effect, and with the dot-shaped marks and interference patterns on a screen by individual photons in a two-slit experiment.

Abstract:
In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of di culties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” under the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric eld divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. Itthus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken symmetry, for solving the di culties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and nite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron dueto a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric e ect, two-slit experiments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.

Abstract:
The elementary electron-positron pair formation process is consideredin terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, with specialattention to the conservation of energy, spin, and electric charge.The theory leads to a wave-packet photon model of narrow line widthand needle-radiation properties, not being available from conventionalquantum electrodynamics which is based on Maxwell's equations. Themodel appears to be consistent with the observed pair productionprocess, in which the created electron and positron form two raysthat start within a very small region and have original directionsalong the path of the incoming photon. Conservation of angular momentum requires the photon to possess a spin, as given by the present theory but not by the conventional one. The nonzero electric field divergence further gives rise to a local intrinsic electric charge density within the photon body, whereas there is a vanishing total charge of the latter. This may explain the observed fact that the photon decays on account of the impact from an external electric field. Such a behaviour should not become possible for a photon having zero local electric charge density.

Abstract:
At present the expanding universe is observed to be dominated by the not fully understood concepts of dark energy and matter, in a conceived almost at Euclidean geometry. As one of the possible efforts to understand the global behaviour of the expanding universe, the present paper attempts to explain these concepts in terms of the pressure force and gravity of a spherical photon gas cloud of zero point energy, in a at geometry. A difficult point of the conventional theory concerns the frequency distribution of the zero point energy oscillations which leads to the unacceptable result of an in nite total energy per unit volume. A modification of this distribution is therefore proposed which results in nite energy density. A corresponding equilibrium state is investigated, as well as small dynamic deviations from it, to form a basis for a model of the expanding universe. Provided that the crucial points of the present approach hold true, the model satisfies the requirements of cosmic linear dimensions, results in an estimated acceleration of the expansion being of the order of the observed one, presents a possible solution of the coincidence problem of dark energy and matter, and provides one of the possible explanations of the observed excess of high-energy electrons and positrons in recent balloon and satellite experiments.

Abstract:
Two-slit experiments performed earlier by Tsuchiya et al. and recently by Afshar et al. demonstrate the joint wave-particle properties of the single indiviual photon, and agree with Einstein's argument against Complementarity. These results cannot be explained by conventional theory in which Maxwell's equations serve as a guiding line and basis. On the other hand a revised quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum yields results which appear to be consistent with the experiments. A model of the individual photon is thus deduced from the theory, in the form of a wave packet behaving as a single entity and having simultaneous wave and particle properties.

Abstract:
The
vacuum is not a state of empty space, but is populated by electromagnetic fluctuations
at a lowest nonzero level, the Zero Point Energy (ZPE). As distinguished from
conventional theories, such as that of the Standard Model, the present revised
quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED) includes the ZPE in its field equations.
This leads to new results far beyond those obtained from conventional theories
such as those by Dirac and Higgs. Thus, the present theory results in massive
elementary particles from the beginning, being independent of the theory by
Higgs. This paper describes the background and results of RQED, summarizing the
weak points of conventional theories, the unification of included fundamental
concepts, the present basic field equations, new obtained results, and special
points of experimental support. In other words, the new points stressed in this
paper are in particular the relation between a nonzero electric field
divergence in the vacuum and the ZPE, and a number of new experimentally
supported results due to a nonzero ZPE energy density in the same state.