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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144440 matches for " B. Hatami "
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Comparison of the Effects of Three Insecticides and Release of Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.), against Nymphal Stages of Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum West
Z. Ahmadzadeh,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum West. is one of the most important pests of the field crops and ornamental plants in greenhouses. Pest control is based on using chemical insecticides and biological control agents. In this study, the efficiency of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea ( Steph.) with release ratios of 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20 (predator:prey) using eggs in chrysobag and the effect of three insecticides including Confidor (35% Sc), Permethrin (25% Ec) and Dimilin (25% Wp) at concentrations of 0.3 ml/l, 0.3 ml/l and 0.15 g/l in water, respectively, were investigated. In one experiment, the eggs of the green lacewing were released on tomato plants that were infested with 150 different nymphal instars of the pest. Control treatment included chrysobag whithout any egg. After 11 days, nymphal mortality was calculated. In insecticidal experiments, in control treatment, only water was sprayed. Both experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a greenhouse with 25±5 °C, 50-60% RH and 14:10 LD period light conditions. The means of data were compared using Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that the maximum nymphal mortality of 52.42% was due to the release ratio of 1:1 (predator:prey); however, this was not sufficient and did not control the pest population. The results of the chemical control also revealed that one application of Confidor caused the highest mortality about 88% that was more effective in reducing pest population compared with the release of predator eggs. Neither method had absolute control. In general, results indicated that to be more effective the two methods need to be applied more than once, and they must be combined into one or with other control methods.
Morphological and Biological Studies of Greenhouse Whitefly [Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)] in Isfahan
H. Ghahari,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2000,
Abstract: The difficulties of control of greenhouse whitefly on crops and greenhouse plants make extensive studies and investigations necessary in different areas of Iran. Morphological and biological studies were carried out on a prevailing species of greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, in Isfahan. In this study, six species of whiteflies T. vaporariorum on Althaea sp. and Lantana camara, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, B. argentifolii Bellows & Perring and B. hancoki Corbett, on Lantana camara, Aleyrodes proletella L. on Brassica sp. and Aleyrodes rosae on Rosa sp. were collected. These species were described using different identification keys. Morphological characteristics and different growth stages of greenhouse whitefly including egg, 1st to 4th nymphal instars and adult were defined and figures drawn. Biological studies were conducted in 24±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16:8 (L:D) on eggplant, solanum melongena. The developmental time for egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th nymphal instars was 7.33±0.48, 3.37±0.52, 3.25±0.45, 2.51±0.26 and 7.66±0.83 days, respectively. The total period from egg to adult lasted 24.12±0.51 days. The number of eggs laid in 24 hours varied between 1 to 10 with an average of 5.93±1.67. Life-span of the male ranged between 19 to 23 with an average of 20.88±1.54 and that of the female varied between 20 to 28 with an average of 26.44±1.17 days. Four nymphal instars were identified and three substages for the 4th nymphal instars were determined. There was a positive correlation between nymphal instars and average body length and width. Since only male offsprings were produced through parthenogenesis, the strain of greenhouse whitefly in Isfahan was found to be European.
Singular and Joint Usage of Third Larval Instars of Hippodamia Variegata (Goeze) and Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) in Biological Control of Aphis gossypii Glover in Greenhouse
K. Zibai,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2001,
Abstract: The efficiency of singular and joint usage of third larval instars of ladybeetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) and green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) was studied against cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover on cucumber plants in greenhouse. The predator-prey ratio of 1:30 reduced the population of pest significantly. Singular and joint usage of predators, however, was not significantly different. The predator-prey ratio of 1:90 reduced the population of host significantly but the treatment with larvae of both predators and the treatment with only ladybeetle larvae were not significantly different. However, only the treatment with lacewing larvae was significantly different from the two above-mentioned treatments.
The Effect of Different Diets and Storage Period of Encarsia formosa Gahan on its Longevity and Efficiency
B. Hatami,H. Ghahari
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2001,
Abstract: Regarding the importance and high potential of Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) for control of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), the effect of different diets and storage of the parasitoid at low temperatures on its longevity and efficiency was studied. The average longevity of the parasitoid on different diets including honey-syrup 15%, honey-syrup 10%, sucrose syrup 15%, honeydew of whitefly were significantly different at 1% from distilled water and control (without water and food) treatments. Change in honey-syrup concentration at a range of 5% did not affect the longevity of the parasitoid. The honeydew and sucrose-syrup treatments were not significantly different. This was probably due to the relative similarity of food quality of these two diets. Storage of host parasitized nymphs containing pupae of 1-2 days-old of E. formosa at 8±1°C affected the emergence rate and efficiency of adult parasitoids. Four treatments including the pupae of parasitoids in 4th nymphal instars of the greenhouse whitefly were stored at 8±1°C for 5, 15, 25 and 35 days. Control treatment included pupae of parasitoid that were held at room temperature, 24±4°C. Host nymphs were parasitized by the parasitoids emerging from all treatments. The average parasitized nymphs by parasitoids emerging from 5, 15 days and control treatments were not significantly different at 1 %.
Laboratory Study of Interspecific Predation of Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) and Ladybeetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze)
B. Hatami,K. Zibai
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2000,
Abstract: The interference of biological agents may cause behaviors such as interspecific predation, reducing their efficiencies. The interspecific predation of lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) and ladybeetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) was investigated in the presence and absence of prey, Aphis gossypii Glover under laboratory conditions. In the presence and absence of prey, the larvae of lacewing fed on eggs, larvae, pupae and adults of ladybeetle and the larvae and adults of ladybeetle fed on eggs and larvae of lacewing. Presence of prey reduced the rate of feeding significantly. Feeding of lacewing larvae on ladybeetle eggs was higher than the feeding of ladybeetle larvae and adults on lacewing eggs. This is probably due to the stalk of lacewing eggs. The 1st larval instar of lacewing was dominant to that of ladybeetle, so were 2nd larval instar of lacewing to the 1st and 2nd larval instars of ladybeetle and 3rd larval instar of lacewing to all larval instars and adults of ladybeetle. Third larval instar of ladybeetle was dominant to the 1st larval instar of lacewing, and 4th larval instar and adult of ladybeetle to the 1st and 2nd larval instars of lacewing. The 2nd and 3rd larval instars of lacewing fed on pupa of ladybeetle but larval feeding of ladybeetle was not observed on lacewing pupa. This was probably related to lacewing pupa covered by a cocoon.
Evaluation of Integrated Control of Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum West. Using Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) and Insecticide Confidor in Greenhouse Conditions
Z. Ahmadzadeh,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2006,
Abstract: Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum West., is one of the most important pests of field crops and ornamental plants in greenhouses which usually controlled by chemical insecticide and/or by biologic control factors. In this study the effect of singular and integrated use of Confidor and predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.) against different nymphal instars of the pest on tomato plant was investigated. This experiment was carried out in 7 treatments, each in 3 replicates. Treatments included predator alone, the use of insecticide alone, and 4 integrated treatments of both the predator and insecticide. The predator was released at 5, 10, 15 and 20 day intervals after insecticide application. The control (water), insecticide spray and release of the predator were repeated each 10 days. In integrated treatments, insecticide was applied only once at the beginning of the experiment. The results showed that there was a significant difference between treatments. Pest control was not achieved with one or two attempts of release of predator or spray of insecticide. Pest elimination was only observed after third spray in insecticide treatment and 3 releases of predator beginning 20 days after spray in integrated treatment. These two treatments were shown to be of equal effectiveness in pest control. Also pest population was controlled after 5 releases which began 5 days after insecticide application. The use of the alone predator was statistically found to be less effective than treatment with the insecticide alone. Generally, integrated treatment is a promising alternative approach to pest control in longterm. It has clear advantages over chemical control in terms of pest resistance, environmental and general pest control issues. .
Comparison of Two Methods of Releasing Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.)
Z. Rafiei Karahroudi,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: Green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Steph.), is one of the important natural enemies of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. In this study, two experiments were conducted on cucumber plant in netted cages (70*70*40 cm) in a greenhouse. In the first experiment, Chryso-bags (special net bags with 360 holes per 2.5 cm2 and 8 cm in width and 12 cm in length) were used. Seven treatments of release ratios included 1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:15 and 1:20 (predator: prey) and two control treatments with and without empty bags were compared. The experiment was conducted once in spring and once in autumn. In the second experiment, better release ratios were compared with two methods, Chryso-bag and sawdust as a carrier of eggs. Release ratios were 1:1 and 1:5 (predator: prey). Control treatments included only empty bag and sawdust, respectively. Results of the first experiment showed that the ratios of 1:1 and 1:5 were significantly different in spring, whereas they were not in autumn. The difference was probably due to the difference in temperature. Interaction between treatments and seasons showed that the ratios of 1:1 and 1:5 were not significantly different. In the second experiment, the release ratios of 1:1 and 1:5 in sawdust with each other and with 1:1 in Chryso-bags were not significantly different, while the ratio of 1:5 in Chryso-bag compared with 1:1 in both methods were significantly different. However, leaf necrosis was observed in the sawdust treatment.
Seasonal Population Fluctuations of the Rose Aphid, Macrosiphum rosae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on Different Cultivars of Roses and Nastaran.
M. Mehrparvar,M. Mobli,B. Hatami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Rose is one of the most important ornamental shrubs of the world because of its durability, long period of flowering, different cultivars and its beauty. The rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae is the most important pest of the rose which causes significant economic damage annually. In order to compare four rose cultivars including Black Magic, Caramba, Noa and Good Life, and a wild rose, Nastaran, infested with rose aphid, a split-plot in time experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design layout with three replications, in Isfahan (Iran) from February 2004 to March 2005. The infestation levels of roses with the rose aphid and its seasonal fluctuations were determined by weekly sampling. Analysis of data showed that there are significant differences (P<0.01) between cultivars. Noa (with pink flowers) has the highest infestation of rose aphid (with average 23.12 ± 0.036 aphids) and Caramba (with yellow flowers) has the lowest infestation (with average 6.46 ± 0.036 aphids). The wild rose, Nastaran, showed low infestation (with average 8.76 ± 0.036) as well. Different sampling times also showed significant differences (P<0.01). There was a significant interaction (P<0.01) between cultivars and sampling date, such that reactions of cultivars to aphid (nymphs, adults and total) were not similar in different sampling dates. Seasonal fluctuations of the rose aphid showed two peaks in a year, in May and December. Activity of the rose aphid in spring which coincides with rapid growth and tenderness of rose foliage causes severe fading and inhibiting of floral opening.
Comparison of Biological Characteristics of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. (Col.: Coccinellidae) on Planococcus citri Risso (Hom.: Pseudococcidae) and Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell (Hom.: Coccidae) in Laboratory
E. Gharizadeh,B. Hatami,H. Seyedoleslami
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2004,
Abstract: The coccinellid Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. is an oligophagous predator that is used to control mealy bugs in the orchards and greenhouses. Citrus soft scale, Pulvinaria aurantii, as an active pest on citrus plants in North of Iran is also attacked by this predator. This research was conducted to study biological characteristics of C. montrouzieri on citrus soft scale and mealy bug, Planococcus citri. Initially, Cryptolaemus eggs were collected from colonies of two preys and reared in laboratory (14 L: 10 D, 25±1 C, and RH 70 ±5%). The incubation period of eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and, 4th larval instars, and total larval, prepupal, and pupal stages were studied on two preys. The developmental stages on two preys were not significantly different, except for the 4th larval instar at 1% and total larval stages at 5%. The sex ratio of male to female on two preys were not significantly different at 1% and was 1:1. Except for pre-oviposition period, other parameters including female longevity, average number of eggs laid per day, average total number of eggs laid per female and percentage of hatching were significantly different at 1% on the two preys. The average feeding of total larval period on eggs of mealy bug and citrus soft scale were 5715 and 7694, respectively that, the difference was significant at 1%. The results showed that some of the biological characteristics of Cryptolaemus on two preys were significantly different. Since the predator feeding on the eggs of citrus soft scale was higher than the mealy bug, it seems that this beneficial insect could be used for biological control of the citrus soft scale.
Biology of Leucopis glyphinivora Tanas. (Dip.: Chamaemyiidae) and its Efficiency in Biological Control of Aphis fabae Scop
S. Ghadiri Rad,B. Hatami,G. Asadi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2003,
Abstract: The biology of predatory fly, Leucopis glyphinivora Tanas. was studied under greenhouse conditions. Adult longevity was 8 days and the average fecundity was 35.7 eggs. Incubation period, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd larval instars and puparium duration averaged 2.7, 2.16, 3.48, 5.7 and 8.45 days, respectively. Each generation lasted about one month. The predator efficiency was studied by applying the egg together with the adults of A. fabae at ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 on broad bean. First larval instar was exclusively feeding on small nymphs (1st and 2nd nymphal instars) of aphid. Predator:prey ratios of 1:4, 1:8 and 1:16 decreased the number of prey to 97.9%, 98.8% and 61%, respectively, but ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 were unsuccessful in decreasing the number of preys due to predatory larvae leaving the host plant for searching small nymphs of aphid. As a result, the predatory larvae were efficient merely in a particular range of aphid density and age structure.
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