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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144355 matches for " B. Gramlich "
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Light propagation and fluorescence quantum yields in liquid scintillators
C. Buck,B. Gramlich,S. Wagner
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/10/09/P09007
Abstract: For the simulation of the scintillation and Cherenkov light propagation in large liquid scintillator detectors a detailed knowledge about the absorption and emission spectra of the scintillator molecules is mandatory. Furthermore reemission probabilities and quantum yields of the scintillator components influence the light propagation inside the liquid. Absorption and emission properties are presented for liquid scintillators using 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 4-bis-(2-Methylstyryl)benzene (bis-MSB) as primary and secondary wavelength shifter. New measurements of the quantum yields for various aromatic molecules are shown.
Extending Context-Sensitivity in Term Rewriting
Bernhard Gramlich,Felix Schernhammer
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.15.5
Abstract: We propose a generalized version of context-sensitivity in term rewriting based on the notion of "forbidden patterns". The basic idea is that a rewrite step should be forbidden if the redex to be contracted has a certain shape and appears in a certain context. This shape and context is expressed through forbidden patterns. In particular we analyze the relationships among this novel approach and the commonly used notion of context-sensitivity in term rewriting, as well as the feasibility of rewriting with forbidden patterns from a computational point of view. The latter feasibility is characterized by demanding that restricting a rewrite relation yields an improved termination behaviour while still being powerful enough to compute meaningful results. Sufficient criteria for both kinds of properties in certain classes of rewrite systems with forbidden patterns are presented.
Termination of Rewriting with and Automated Synthesis of Forbidden Patterns
Bernhard Gramlich,Felix Schernhammer
Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4204/eptcs.44.3
Abstract: We introduce a modified version of the well-known dependency pair framework that is suitable for the termination analysis of rewriting under forbidden pattern restrictions. By attaching contexts to dependency pairs that represent the calling contexts of the corresponding recursive function calls, it is possible to incorporate the forbidden pattern restrictions in the (adapted) notion of dependency pair chains, thus yielding a sound and complete approach to termination analysis. Building upon this contextual dependency pair framework we introduce a dependency pair processor that simplifies problems by analyzing the contextual information of the dependency pairs. Moreover, we show how this processor can be used to synthesize forbidden patterns suitable for a given term rewriting system on-the-fly during the termination analysis.
Large scale Gd-beta-diketonate based organic liquid scintillator production for antineutrino detection
C. Aberle,C. Buck,B. Gramlich,F. X. Hartmann,M. Lindner,S. Sch?nert,U. Schwan,S. Wagner,H. Watanabe
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/06/P06008
Abstract: Over the course of several decades, organic liquid scintillators have formed the basis for successful neutrino detectors. Gadolinium-loaded liquid scintillators provide efficient background suppression for electron antineutrino detection at nuclear reactor plants. In the Double Chooz reactor antineutrino experiment, a newly developed beta-diketonate gadolinium-loaded scintillator is utilized for the first time. Its large scale production and characterization are described. A new, light yield matched metal-free companion scintillator is presented. Both organic liquids comprise the target and "Gamma Catcher" of the Double Chooz detectors.
AID-Targeting and Hypermutation of Non-Immunoglobulin Genes Does Not Correlate with Proximity to Immunoglobulin Genes in Germinal Center B Cells
Hillary Selle Gramlich, Tara Reisbig, David G. Schatz
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039601
Abstract: Upon activation, B cells divide, form a germinal center, and express the activation induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that triggers somatic hypermutation of the variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Recent evidence indicates that at least 25% of expressed genes in germinal center B cells are mutated or deaminated by AID. One of the most deaminated genes, c-Myc, frequently appears as a translocation partner with the Ig heavy chain gene (Igh) in mouse plasmacytomas and human Burkitt's lymphomas. This indicates that the two genes or their double-strand break ends come into close proximity at a biologically relevant frequency. However, the proximity of c-Myc and Igh has never been measured in germinal center B cells, where many such translocations are thought to occur. We hypothesized that in germinal center B cells, not only is c-Myc near Igh, but other mutating non-Ig genes are deaminated by AID because they are near Ig genes, the primary targets of AID. We tested this “collateral damage” model using 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to measure the distance from non-Ig genes to Ig genes in germinal center B cells. We also made mice transgenic for human MYC and measured expression and mutation of the transgenes. We found that there is no correlation between proximity to Ig genes and levels of AID targeting or gene mutation, and that c-Myc was not closer to Igh than were other non-Ig genes. In addition, the human MYC transgenes did not accumulate mutations and were not deaminated by AID. We conclude that proximity to Ig loci is unlikely to be a major determinant of AID targeting or mutation of non-Ig genes, and that the MYC transgenes are either missing important regulatory elements that allow mutation or are unable to mutate because their new nuclear position is not conducive to AID deamination.
Criminalidade violenta e fragmenta o urbana na Grande Vitória
Cláudio Zanotelli,Eugenia Célia Raizer,Pablo Silva Lira,Eldon Gramlich Oliveira
Geografares , 2006,
Abstract: Esse texto trata da análise e representa- o de índices dos homicídios nos bairros das municipalidades da Aglomera o de Vitória no Espírito Santo. Partimos do pressuposto que os índices dos homicí-dios s o mais elevados em alguns bairros com certo grau de segrega o sócio-espacial. Configura-se assim uma organiza o espacial dos homicídios fundada na desigualdade sócio-econ mica e em certos aspectos estruturais e conjunturais dessas zonas urbanas.
The influence of dispersal on a predator-prey system with two habitats
Philipp Gramlich,Sebastian J. Plitzko,Lars Rudolf,Barbara Drossel,Thilo Gross
Quantitative Biology , 2015,
Abstract: Dispersal between different habitats influences the dynamics and stability of populations considerably. Furthermore, these effects depend on the local interactions of a population with other species. Here, we perform a general and comprehensive study of the simplest possible system that includes dispersal and local interactions, namely a 2-patch 2-species system. We evaluate the impact of dispersal on stability and on the occurrence of bifurcations, including pattern forming bifurcations that lead to spatial heterogeneity, in 19 different classes of models with the help of the generalized modelling approach. We find that dispersal often destabilizes equilibria, but it can stabilize them if it increases population losses. If dispersal is nonrandom, i.e. if emigration or immigration rates depend on population densities, the correlation of stability with migration rates is positive in part of the models. We also find that many systems show all four types of bifurcations and that antisynchronous oscillations occur mostly with nonrandom dispersal.
Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss Is Accompanied by Antibody Depositions and Increased Levels of Microglia after Immunization with Retinal Antigens
Stephanie C. Joachim, Oliver W. Gramlich, Panagiotis Laspas, Heiko Schmid, Sabine Beck, Harald D. von Pein, H. Burkhard Dick, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz H. Grus
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040616
Abstract: Background Antibodies against retinal and optic nerve antigens are detectable in glaucoma patients. Recent studies using a model of experimental autoimmune glaucoma demonstrated that immunization with certain ocular antigens causes an immun-mediated retinal ganglion cell loss in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats immunized with a retinal ganglion cell layer homogenate (RGA) had a reduced retinal ganglion cell density on retinal flatmounts (p = 0.007) and a lower number of Brn3+retinal ganglion cells (p = 0.0001) after six weeks. The autoreactive antibody development against retina and optic nerve was examined throughout the study. The levels of autoreactive antibodies continuously increased up to 6 weeks (retina: p = 0.004; optic nerve: p = 0.000003). Additionally, antibody deposits were detected in the retina (p = 0.02). After 6 weeks a reactive gliosis (GFAP density: RGA: 174.7±41.9; CO: 137.6±36.8, p = 0.0006; %GFAP+ area: RGA: 8.5±3.4; CO: 5.9±3.6, p = 0.006) as well as elevated level of Iba1+ microglia cells (p = 0.003) was observed in retinas of RGA animals. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that these antibodies play a substantial role in mechanisms leading to retinal ganglion cell death. This seems to lead to glia cell activation as well as the invasion of microglia, which might be associated with debris clearance.
Protective effect of some vitamins against the toxic action of ethanol on liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in rats
Carlett Ramírez-Farías, Eduardo Madrigal-Santillán, José Gutiérrez-Salinas, Nidia Rodríguez-Sánchez, Maricela Martínez-Cruz, Ilse Valle-Jones, Ingrid Gramlich-Martínez, Alejandra Hernández-Ceruelos, José A Morales-González
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamins (A, C and E) on liver injury induced by ethanol administration during liver regeneration in rats.METHODS: Male Wistar rats subjected to 70% partial hepatectomy were divided into five groups (groups 1-5). During the experiment, animals of Group 1 drank only water. The other four groups (2-5) drank 30 mL of ethanol/L of water. Group 3 additionally received vitamin A, those of group 4 vitamin C and those of group 5 received vitamin E. Subsequently serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin and bilirubin were measured colorimetrically. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, TBARS) both in plasma and liver was measured, as well as liver mass gain assessment and total DNA.RESULTS: Compared with sham group, serum AST and ALT increased significantly under ethanol treatment (43% and 93%, respectively, with P < 0.05). Vitamin C and vitamin E treatment attenuated the ethanol-induced increases in ALT and AST activity. Ethanol treatment also decreased serum albumin concentration compared to sham group (3.1 ± 0.4 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.2 g/dL; P < 0.05). During liver regeneration vitamins C and E significantly ameliorated liver injury for ethanol administration in hepatic lipid peroxidation (4.92 nmol/mg and 4.25 nmol/mg vs 14.78 nmol/mg, respectively, with P < 0.05). In association with hepatic injury, ethanol administration caused a significant increase in both hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation. Vitamins (C and E) treatment attenuated hepatic and plasma lipid peroxidation.CONCLUSION: Vitamins C and E protect against liver injury and dysfunction, attenuate lipid peroxidation, and thus appear to be significantly more effective than vitamin A against ethanol-mediated toxic effects during liver regeneration.
The Mélange of Innovation and Tradition in Maltese Law: The Essence of the Maltese Mix?
B Andò
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Aim of this paper is to provide valuable insights into the Maltese legal system with a special focus on private law. The assumption is that this legal system is the byproduct of the "mixing" of innovation and tradition, resulting from the interaction of English law and continental law. A major role in the development of the system is played by courts. Some examples (moral damages and pre-contractual liability) are considered which highlight the importance of the function displayed by Maltese judges. KEYWORDS: Tradition; English law; continental law; hybridity; mixed legal systems; Maltese courts; moral damages; pre-contractual liability; lacunae
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