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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144348 matches for " B. Gnade "
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Noise Considerations of Integrators for Current Readout Circuits
B. Bechen,A. Kemna,M. Gnade,T. v. d. Boom
Advances in Radio Science : Kleinheubacher Berichte , 2005,
Abstract: In this paper the noise analysis of a current integrator is carried out and measures to reduce the overall noise are presented. The effects of various noise sources are investigated and their dependence on the input capacitance and on the gate area of the input transistors of the OTA used for the readout is shown. Both, input capacitance and gate area, should be kept as small as possible. Moreover, the linearity of the integrator is examined. In addition to that, the available application of such sensor readout circuit, which is a CMOS photodetector readout, is introduced. It uses an automatic gain switching, so that the dynamic range is extended.
Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors
J. Metcalfe,I. Mejia,J. Murphy,M. Quevedo,L. Smith,J. Alvarado,B. Gnade,H. Takai
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.
Synthesis and Characterization of Pb(Zr , Ti )O -Pb(Nb , Zn )O Thin Film Cantilevers for Energy Harvesting Applications
E. M. A. Fuentes-Fernandez,W. Debray-Mechtaly,M. A. Quevedo-Lopez,B. Gnade,E. Leon-Salguero,P. Shah,H. N. Alshareef
Smart Materials Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/872439
Abstract: A complete analysis of the morphology, crystallographic orientation, and resulting electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.53,Ti0.47) Pb(Nb1/3, Zn2/3)O3 (PZT-PZN) thin films, as well as the electrical behavior when integrated in a cantilever for energy harvesting applications, is presented. The PZT-PZN films were deposited using sol-gel methods. We report that using 20% excess Pb, a nucleation layer of PbTiO3 (PT), and a fast ramp rate provides large grains, as well as denser films. The PZT-PZN is deposited on a stack of TiO2/PECVD SiO2/Si3N4/thermal SiO2/Poly-Si/Si. This stack is designed to allow wet-etching the poly-Si layer to release the cantilever structures. It was also found that the introduction of the poly-Si layer results in larger grains in the PZT-PZN film. PZT-PZN films with a dielectric constant of 3200 and maximum polarization of 30?μC/cm2 were obtained. The fabricated cantilever devices produced ~300–400?mV peak-to-peak depending on the cantilever design. Experimental results are compared with simulations. 1. Introduction The ability to retrofit systems with power consuming electronics without having to consider issues associated with providing an independent power source offers a significant advantage for devices in hard to reach locations [1]. In the past few years there has been an increase in research on small wireless electronic devices [1–3]. Mechanical vibrations have received attention as a potential source of power for sensors and wireless electronics in a wide variety of applications [4]. To accomplish this, improving the piezoelectric material used in the cantilever is of paramount importance [5]. Piezoelectric materials are widely used for various devices, including multilayer capacitors, sensors, and actuators [2, 3, 6]. By the 1950s, the ferroelectric solid solution Pb(Zr1?x Tix)O3 (PZT) was found to have exceptionally high dielectric and piezoelectric properties for compositions close to the morphotrophic phase boundary (MPB) [7, 8]. Research to improve the PZT properties, from the material and electrical standpoint, has been mainly accomplished by doping conventional PZT with different elements to “relax” the material [5, 9]. Previous investigations on the dielectric and electrical properties of many ceramic systems, such as barium titanate (BT), lead zirconate titanate (PZT), lead magnesium niobate (PMN), lead titanate (PT), PMN-PT, PZT-BT, and PMN-PZT have demonstrated the importance of the subject [10–13]. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the lead zirconate titanate-lead zinc niobate
Liliana López Levi,Jill Renee Gnade
Política y cultura , 2001,
Evaluation of CdS Interfacial Layers in ZnO Nanowire/Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) Solar Cells
John W. Murphy,Israel Mejia,Bruce E. Gnade,Manuel A. Quevedo-Lopez
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/192456
Abstract: We prepare ZnO:poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin-film solar cells and ZnO nanowire:P3HT nanostructured solar cells and evaluate the effect of adding an interfacial layer between the ZnO and P3HT as a function of the nanowire height. We evaluate several different interlayers of CdS deposited, using two different chemical bath deposition (CBD) recipes. The height of the nanowire array is varied from a bilayer device with no nanowires up to arrays with a height of 2 μm. We find that achieving a conformal coating of the ZnO with the interfacial layer is critical to improve device performance and that CBD can be used to grow conformal films on nonuniform surfaces.
Emergence of Anthrax Edema Toxin as a Master Manipulator of Macrophage and B Cell Functions
Bryan T. Gnade,Scott T. Moen,Ashok K. Chopra,Johnny W. Peterson,Linsey A. Yeager
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071881
Abstract: Anthrax edema toxin (ET), a powerful adenylyl cyclase, is an important virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Until recently, only a modest amount of research was performed to understand the role this toxin plays in the organism’s immune evasion strategy. A new wave of studies have begun to elucidate the effects this toxin has on a variety of host cells. While efforts have been made to illuminate the effect ET has on cells of the adaptive immune system, such as T cells, the greatest focus has been on cells of the innate immune system, particularly the macrophage. Here we discuss the immunoevasive activities that ET exerts on macrophages, as well as new research on the effects of this toxin on B cells.
Bacteriophage-Resistant Mutants in Yersinia pestis: Identification of Phage Receptors and Attenuation for Mice
Andrey A. Filippov,Kirill V. Sergueev,Yunxiu He,Xiao-Zhe Huang,Bryan T. Gnade,Allen J. Mueller,Carmen M. Fernandez-Prada,Mikeljon P. Nikolich
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025486
Abstract: Bacteriophages specific for Yersinia pestis are routinely used for plague diagnostics and could be an alternative to antibiotics in case of drug-resistant plague. A major concern of bacteriophage therapy is the emergence of phage-resistant mutants. The use of phage cocktails can overcome this problem but only if the phages exploit different receptors. Some phage-resistant mutants lose virulence and therefore should not complicate bacteriophage therapy.
The Mélange of Innovation and Tradition in Maltese Law: The Essence of the Maltese Mix?
B Andò
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2012,
Abstract: Aim of this paper is to provide valuable insights into the Maltese legal system with a special focus on private law. The assumption is that this legal system is the byproduct of the "mixing" of innovation and tradition, resulting from the interaction of English law and continental law. A major role in the development of the system is played by courts. Some examples (moral damages and pre-contractual liability) are considered which highlight the importance of the function displayed by Maltese judges. KEYWORDS: Tradition; English law; continental law; hybridity; mixed legal systems; Maltese courts; moral damages; pre-contractual liability; lacunae
B. Харченко,О. Ал?кс??в,Д. Бабейчук,М. Повознюк
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2011,
Abstract: At present, the problem who can and who should solve the question concerning the preparationand recurrent training of pilots of Ukrainian civil aviation is not solved. The necessity of updatingof aircraft’s park in aviation branch and aircraft operation, which was ripened 10 years ago,demands a corresponding infrastructure. It is necessary to understand, that the pilots ready toperform the flights on modern aircrafts, will not appear by themselves, therefore the real actions onmodernization of existing system of aircrew and the aviation personnel preparation as a whole arerequired. Main objective of this work is the determination of the basic components concerning thesolving of the problematic questions on preparation of aircrew on modern types of aircrafts. Duringthe problem analysis it was specified that the present development of system of aircrew preparationin Ukraine is not perfect, and does not correspond the ICAO and EU requirements, therefore needsan immediate intervention at the highest State level. Trainings are not complex, as do not containthe elements of selection of aircrew members cooperation. Programs of recurrent training ofaircrew, courses of pilots training flight preparation were not reconsidered for many years Розглянуто проблему п дготовки п лот в цив льно ав ац Уккра ни, яка на сьогодн нев дпов да вимогам ICAO та С. Визначено основн складов п дготовки льотного складу насучасн пов трян судна.Ключов слова: аеронав гац йне обслуговування, керована множина, керован об’ кти,рад олокац йне та рад онав гац йне забезпечення польот в, системи керування пов трянимрухом. Розглянуто проблему п дготовки п лот в цив льно ав ац Уккра ни, яка на сьогодн нев дпов да вимогам ICAO та С. Визначено основн складов п дготовки льотного складу насучасн пов трян судна.
С. Павлова,B. Павлов,В. Чеп?женко
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2011,
Abstract: Substantially nonlinear objects function at limitations of arbitrary kind. These limitations are not necessarily convex areas. For such objects the construction of area of the fully the fully-controlled state area is a serious problem. In the article it has been suggested to replace this task the task of the fully-controlled state area estimation from within. The secure estimation method of the fully-controlled state area has been developed for this purpose. Other dynamic system has been used as a tester (measure) of the fully-controlled state area. Construction and estimation of controllability and accessibility area of this dynamic system well methodically validate and deserved researchers confession. The descriptions concordance requirements of this new object with properties of initial object must be executed and provide property of immersion of new object in an initial object. Possibility is thus opened on the the fully-controlled state area of new object to define the the fully-controlled state area of the initial system На основ процедури мерсування м рних об’ кт в у вих дний об’ кт розроблено методгарантованого оц нювання област повн стю керованого стану.On the basis of procedure of immersion of the measuring objects in an initial object the secureestimation method of the fully controlled state area has been developed.На основе процедуры иммерсирования мерных объектов в исходный объект разработанметод гарантированного оценивания области полностью управляемого состояния. Показано, що для стотно нел н йних об’ кт в, що функц онують в умовах наявност обме-жень дов льного виду, як не обов’язково опуклими областями, побудова област повн стюкерованого стану проблематична. Запропоновано зам нити це завдання оц нюванням област повн стю керованого стану зсередини. Для цього розроблено метод гарантовано оц нюванняобласт повн стю керованого стану. Як вим рника (м ра) област повн стю керованого станувикористана нша динам чна система, п
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