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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 348547 matches for " B. D. Xu "
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New classes of generalized invex monotonicity
B. Xu,D. L. Zhu
Journal of Inequalities and Applications , 2006,
Abstract: This paper introduces new classes of generalized invex monotone mappings and invex cocoercive mappings. Their differential property and role to analyze and solve variational-like inequality problem are presented.
Research on the Effect of High Power Microwave on Low Noise Amplifier and Limiter Based on the Injection Method  [PDF]
D. Chen, L.M. Xu, B.S. Zhang, H.G. Ma
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.22016
Abstract: The reliability of electronic device is threatened in high power microwave (HPM) environment. In accordance with the situation that the emulation is ineffective in evaluating the accuracy and precision of the HPM effect to electronic device, the experimental method is used to resolve the problem. Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and Limiter are selected as the objects for the experiments, the structural characteristic of the front-end of radar receiver is described, the phenomena and criterion are elaborated and analyzed using injection method due to its ability to get an accurate threshold avoiding the complex coupling, the basic principle of injection experiment is demonstrated, and the method and process of effect experiment about Low Noise Amplifier and Limiter are also explained. The experimental system is established, and the system is composed of low power microwave source such as TWT, test equipment for obtaining the effect parameters, and some of auxiliary equipments as camera, optical microscope or electron microscopy, attenuator, detector, and directional coupler etc. The microwave delivered from source is adjusted to the power infused by attenuator, and pour in the decanting point of effecter via directional coupler, then the couple signal created by directional coupler is input to the recording instrument after detecting by detector, finally the power of effecter is obtained. The value of power, which damages the effecter in the microwave pulse environment, is classified at the index of sensitivity, and the threshold is obtained by power diagnose and wave test. Some regular understandings of the HPM effect to electronic device are obtained based on the results of the experiments. It turns out that the index of electronic device is influenced significantly by the energy via front door coupling, the MOSFET made up of GaAs is the most wearing part to HPM in LNA, the damage threshold of LNA is about 40dBm under single pulse while in repetitive pulse the value is from 33.3dBm to 43.9dBm according to different wave band. The damage threshold of Limiter is about 56dBm to80dBm.
The Linear Correlation Coefficient vs. the Cross Term in Bose-Einstein Correlations
B. R. Schlei,D. Strottman,N. Xu
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)01523-2
Abstract: We investigate the nature of the new cross term for Gaussian parameterizations of Bose-Einstein correlations of identical particles emitted from purely chaotic hadron sources formed by relativistic heavy ion collisions. We find that this additional parameter in the so-called Bertsch parameterization can be expressed in terms of a linear ``out-longitudinal'' correlation coefficient for emission of bosons and two already known ``radius'' parameters, $R_l$ and $R_o$. The linear correlation coefficient is of kinematical nature and can be used to determine the widths of longitudinal momentum distributions.
On the Equation of State of Nuclear Matter in 158A GeV Pb+Pb Collisions
B. R. Schlei,D. Strottman,N. Xu
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.3467
Abstract: Within a hydrodynamical approach we investigate the sensitivity of single inclusive momentum spectra of hadrons in 158A GeV Pb+Pb collisions to three different equations of state of nuclear matter. Two of the equations of state are based on lattice QCD results and include a phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma. The third equation of state has been extracted from the microscopic transport code RQMD under the assumption of complete local thermalization. All three equations of state provide reasonable fits to data taken by the NA44 and NA49 Collaborations. The initial conditions before the evolution of the fireballs and the space-time evolution pictures differ dramatically for the three equations of state when the same freeze-out temperature is used in all calculations. However, the softest of the equations of state results in transverse mass spectra that are too steep in the central rapidity region. We conclude that the transverse particle momenta are determined by the effective softness of the equation of state during the fireball expansion.
The Equation of State of Nuclear Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions at CERN-SPS Energies from the Viewpoint of Relativistic Hydrodynamics
B. R. Schlei,D. Strottman,N. Xu
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We present refits of single inclusive cross section data of mesons and baryons for central 158 $AGeV$ Pb+Pb collisions measured by the NA44 and NA49 Collaborations. In the theoretical approach we use the relativistic hydrodynamical code HYLANDER-C. We investigate several equations of state in their capability to describe the measured single inclusive momentum distributions. Based on the obtained fits we present results of the calculated Bose-Einstein correlation functions of identical pion pairs and discuss their features in comparison to measurements.
Operator representations for a class of quantum entanglement measures and criterions
Z. Xu,B. Zeng,D. L. Zhou
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We find that a class of entanglement measures for bipartite pure state can be expressed by the average values of quantum operators, which are related to any complete basis of one partite operator space. Two specific examples are given based on two different ways to generalize Pauli matrices to $d$ dimensional Hilbert space and the case for identical particle system is also considered. In addition, applying our measure to mixed state case will give a sufficient condition for entanglement.
Two Beyond-Primitive Extrasolar Planetesimals
S. Xu,M. Jura,B. Klein,D. Koester,B. Zuckerman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/132
Abstract: Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained high-resolution ultraviolet observations of GD 362 and PG 1225-079, two helium-dominated, externally-polluted white dwarfs. We determined or placed useful upper limits on the abundances of two key volatile elements, carbon and sulfur, in both stars; we also constrained the zinc abundance in PG 1225-079. In combination with previous optical data, we find strong evidence that each of these two white dwarfs has accreted a parent body that has evolved beyond primitive nebular condensation. The planetesimal accreted onto GD 362 had a bulk composition roughly similar to that of a mesosiderite meteorite based on a reduced chi-squared comparison with solar system objects; however, additional material is required to fully reproduce the observed mid-infrared spectrum for GD 362. No single meteorite can reproduce the unique abundance pattern observed in PG 1225-079; the best fit model requires a blend of ureilite and mesosiderite material. From a compiled sample of 9 well-studied polluted white dwarfs, we find evidence for both primitive planetesimals, which are a direct product from nebular condensation, as well as beyond-primitive planetesimals, whose final compositions were mainly determined by post-nebular processing.
Two Extrasolar Asteroids with Low Volatile-Element Mass Fractions
M. Jura,S. Xu,B. Klein,D. Koester,B. Zuckerman
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/750/1/69
Abstract: Using ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we extend our previous ground-based optical determinations of the composition of the extrasolar asteroids accreted onto two white dwarfs, GD 40 and G241-6. Combining optical and ultraviolet spectra of these stars with He-dominated atmospheres, 13 and 12 polluting elements are confidently detected in GD 40 and G241-6, respectively. For the material accreted onto GD 40, the volatile elements C and S are deficient by more than a factor of 10 and N by at least a factor of 5 compared to their mass fractions in primitive CI chondrites and approach what is inferred for bulk Earth. A similar pattern is found for G241-6 except that S is undepleted. We have also newly detected or placed meaningful upper limits for the amount of Cl, Al, P, Ni and Cu in the accreted matter. Extending results from optical studies, the mass fractions of refractory elements in the accreted parent bodies are similar to what is measured for bulk Earth and chondrites. Thermal processing, perhaps interior to a snow line, appears to be of central importance in determining the elemental compositions of these particular extrasolar asteroids.
Discovery of Molecular Hydrogen in White Dwarf Atmospheres
S. Xu,M. Jura,D. Koester,B. Klein,B. Zuckerman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/766/2/L18
Abstract: With the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we have detected molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of three white dwarfs with effective temperatures below 14,000 K, G29-38, GD 133 and GD 31. This discovery provides new independent constraints on the stellar temperature and surface gravity of white dwarfs.
Elemental Compositions of Two Extrasolar Rocky Planetesimals
S. Xu,M. Jura,D. Koester,B. Klein,B. Zuckerman
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/79
Abstract: We report Keck/HIRES and HST/COS spectroscopic studies of extrasolar rocky planetesimals accreted onto two hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs, G29-38 and GD 133. In G29-38, 8 elements are detected, including C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr and Fe while in GD 133, O, Si, Ca and marginally Mg are seen. These two extrasolar planetesimals show a pattern of refractory enhancement and volatile depletion. For G29-38, the observed composition can be best interpreted as a blend of a chondritic object with some refractory-rich material, a result from post-nebular processing. Water is very depleted in the parent body accreted onto G29-38, based on the derived oxygen abundance. The inferred total mass accretion rate in GD 133 is the lowest of all known dusty white dwarfs, possibly due to non-steady state accretion. We continue to find that a variety of extrasolar planetesimals all resemble to zeroth order the elemental composition of bulk Earth.
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