Abstract:
We deduce a new set of symmetries and relations between the coefficients of the expansion of Abelian and Non-Abelian Fractional Quantum Hall (FQH) states in free (bosonic or fermionic) many-body states. Our rules allow to build an approximation of a FQH model state with an overlap increasing with growing system size (that may sometimes reach unity!) while using a fraction of the original Hilbert space. We prove these symmetries by deriving a previously unknown recursion formula for all the coefficients of the Slater expansion of the Laughlin, Read Rezayi and many other states (all Jacks multiplied by Vandermonde determinants), which completely removes the current need for diagonalization procedures.

Abstract:
Conventional transport theory focuses on either the diffusive or ballistic regimes and neglects the crossover region between the two. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, the transport equations are known only in the diffusive regime, where the spin precession angle is small. In this paper, we develop a semiclassical theory of transport valid throughout the diffusive - ballistic crossover of a special SU(2) symmetric spin-orbit coupled system. The theory is also valid in the physically interesting regime where the spin precession angle is large. We obtain exact expressions for the density and spin structure factors in both 2 and 3 dimensional samples with spin-orbit coupling.

Abstract:
We analytically and numerically analyze the one-dimensional "thin-torus" limit of Fractional Topological Insulators in a series of simple models exhibiting exactly flat bands with local hopping. These models are the one-dimensional limit of two dimensional Chern Insulators, and the Hubbard-type interactions projected into their lowest band take particularly simple forms. By exactly solving the many-body interacting spectrum of these models, we show that, just like in the Fractional Quantum Hall effect, the zero modes of the thin-torus limit are CDW states of occupation numbers satisfying generalized Pauli principles. As opposed to the FQH where the thin-torus CDW appear in orbital space, in the thin-torus FCI states, the CDW states are in real-space. We show the counting of the quasihole excitations in the energy spectrum cannot distinguish between a CDW state and a FQH state. However, by exactly computing the entanglement spectrum for the thin-torus states, we show that it can qualitatively and quantitatively distinguish between a CDW and a fractional topological state such as the FCI. We then discover a previously unknown separation of energy scales of the full FQH energy spectrum in the thin torus limit and find that Chern insulator models exhibiting strong isotropic FCI states have a similar structure in their thin-torus limit spectrum. We close by numerically computing the evolution of energy and entanglement spectra from the thin-torus to the isotropic limit. Our results can also be interpreted as an analysis of one-body, 1-dimensional topological insulators stabilized by inversion symmetry in the presence of interactions.

Abstract:
We study a class of translationally-invariant insulators whose symmetries include the $C_n$ point group. These insulators have no spin-orbit coupling, and in some cases have no time-reversal symmetry. Nevertheless, topological phases exist which are distinguished by their robust surface modes. Like many well-known topological phases, their band topology is unveiled by the crystalline analog of Berry phases, i.e., parallel transport across certain non-contractible loops in the Brillouin zone. We also identify certain topological phases without any robust surface modes - they are uniquely distinguished by parallel transport along bent loops, whose shapes are determined by the symmetry group. Our findings have exciting implications for cold-atom systems, where the crystalline Berry phase has been directly measured.

Abstract:
Chern insulators are band insulators exhibiting a nonzero Hall conductance but preserving the lattice translational symmetry. We conclusively show that a partially filled Chern insulator at 1/3 filling exhibits a fractional quantum Hall effect and rule out charge-density wave states that have not been ruled out by previous studies. By diagonalizing the Hubbard interaction in the flat-band limit of these insulators, we show the following: The system is incompressible and has a 3-fold degenerate ground state whose momenta can be computed by postulating an generalized Pauli principle with no more than 1 particle in 3 consecutive orbitals. The ground state density is constant, and equal to 1/3 in momentum space. Excitations of the system are fractional statistics particles whose total counting matches that of quasiholes in the Laughlin state based on the same generalized Pauli principle. The entanglement spectrum of the state has a clear entanglement gap which seems to remain finite in the thermodynamic limit. The levels below the gap exhibit counting identical to that of Laughlin 1/3 quasiholes. Both the 3 ground states and excited states exhibit spectral flow upon flux insertion. All the properties above disappear in the trivial state of the insulator - both the many-body energy gap and the entanglement gap close at the phase transition when the single-particle Hamiltonian goes from topologically nontrivial to topologically trivial. These facts clearly show that fractional many-body states are possible in topological insulators.

Abstract:
The energy and entanglement spectrum of fractionally filled interacting topological insulators exhibit a peculiar manifold of low energy states separated by a gap from a high energy set of spurious states. In the current manuscript, we show that in the case of fractionally filled Chern insulators, the topological information of the many-body state developing in the system resides in this low-energy manifold. We identify an emergent many-body translational symmetry which allows us to separate the states in quasi-degenerate center of mass momentum sectors. Within one center of mass sector, the states can be further classified as eigenstates of an emergent (in the thermodynamic limit) set of many-body relative translation operators. We analytically establish a mapping between the two-dimensional Brillouin zone for the Fractional Quantum Hall effect on the torus and the one for the fractional Chern insulator. We show that the counting of quasi-degenerate levels below the gap for the Fractional Chern Insulator should arise from a folding of the states in the Fractional Quantum Hall system at identical filling factor. We show how to count and separate the excitations of the Laughlin, Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi series in the Fractional Quantum Hall effect into two-dimensional Brillouin zone momentum sectors, and then how to map these into the momentum sectors of the Fractional Chern Insulator. We numerically check our results by showing the emergent symmetry at work for Laughlin, Moore-Read and Read-Rezayi states on the checkerboard model of a Chern insulator, thereby also showing, as a proof of principle, that non-Abelian Fractional Chern Insulators exist.

Abstract:
In this lecture for the Nobel symposium, we review previous research on a class of translational-invariant insulators without spin-orbit coupling. These may be realized in intrinsically spinless systems such as photonic crystals and ultra-cold atoms. Some of these insulators have no time-reversal symmetry as well, i.e., the relevant symmetries are purely crystalline. Nevertheless, topological phases exist which are distinguished by their robust surface modes. To describe these phases, we introduce the notions of (a) a halved-mirror chirality: an integer invariant which characterizes half-mirror planes in the 3D Brillouin zone, and (b) a bent Chern number: the traditional Thouless-Kohmoto-Nightingale-Nijs invariant generalized to bent 2D manifolds. Like other well-known topological phases, their band topology is unveiled by the crystalline analog of Berry phases, i.e., parallel transport across certain non-contractible loops in the Brillouin zone. We also identify certain topological phases without any robust surface modes - they are uniquely distinguished by parallel transport along bent loops, whose shapes are determined by the symmetry group. Finally, we describe the Weyl semimetallic phase that intermediates two distinct, gapped phases.

Abstract:
We predict the appearance of a uniform magnetization in strained three dimensional p-doped semiconductors with inversion symmetry breaking subject to an external electric field. We compute the magnetization response to the electric field as a function of the direction and magnitude of the applied strain. This effect could be used to manipulate the collective magnetic moment of hole mediated ferromagnetism of magnetically doped semiconductors.

Abstract:
We study the pairing symmetry of a two orbital $J_1-J_2$ model for FeAs layers in oxypnictides. We vary the doping and the value of $J_1$ and $J_2$ to compare all possible pairing symmetries in a mean-field calculation. We show that the mixture of an intra-orbital unconventional $s_{x^2y^2}\sim \cos(k_x)\cos(k_y)$ pairing symmetry and a $d_{x^2-y^2}\sim \cos(k_x)-\cos(k_y)$ pairing symmetry is favored in a large part of $J_1-J_2$ phase diagram. A pure $ s_{x^2y^2}$ pairing state is favored for $J_2>>J_1$. The signs of the $d_{x^2-y^2}$ order parameters in two different orbitals are opposite. While a small $d_{xy}\sim \sin(k_x)\sin(k_y)$ inter-orbital pairing order coexists in the above phases, the intra-orbital $d_{xy}$ pairing symmetry is not favored even for large values of $J_2$.