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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 148023 matches for " B. Albert "
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Metric fluctuations of an evaporating black hole from back reaction of stress tensor fluctuations
B. L. Hu,Albert Roura
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.124018
Abstract: This paper delineates the first steps in a systematic quantitative study of the spacetime fluctuations induced by quantum fields in an evaporating black hole under the stochastic gravity program. The central object of interest is the noise kernel, which is the symmetrized two-point quantum correlation function of the stress tensor operator. As a concrete example we apply it to the study of the spherically-symmetric sector of metric perturbations around an evaporating black hole background geometry. For macroscopic black holes we find that those fluctuations grow and eventually become important when considering sufficiently long periods of time (of the order of the evaporation time), but well before the Planckian regime is reached. In addition, the assumption of a simple correlation between the fluctuations of the energy flux crossing the horizon and far from it, which was made in earlier work on spherically-symmetric induced fluctuations, is carefully scrutinized and found to be invalid. Our analysis suggests the existence of an infinite amplitude for the fluctuations when trying to localize the horizon as a three-dimensional hypersurface, as in the classical case, and, as a consequence, a more accurate picture of the horizon as possessing a finite effective width due to quantum fluctuations. This is supported by a systematic analysis of the noise kernel in curved spacetime smeared with different functions under different conditions, the details are collected in the appendices. This case study shows a pathway for probing quantum metric fluctuations near the horizon and understanding their physical meaning.
Comment on "Enhancing Acceleration Radiation from Ground-State Atoms via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics"
B. L. Hu,Albert Roura
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.129301
Abstract: This is a comment on [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 243004 (2003)] by Marlan O. Scully, Vitaly V. Kocharovsky, Alexey Belyanin, Edward Fry and Federico Capasso (quant-ph/0305178).
Black hole fluctuations and dynamics from back-reaction of Hawking radiation: Current work and further studies based on stochastic gravity
B. L. Hu,Albert Roura
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: We give a progress report of our research on spacetime fluctuations induced by quantum fields in an evaporating black hole and a black hole in quasi-equilibrium with its Hawking radiation. We note the main issues involved in these two classes of problems and outline the key steps for a systematic quantitative investigation. This report contains unpublished new ideas for further studies.
Fluctuations of an evaporating black hole from back reaction of its Hawking radiation: Questioning a premise in earlier work
B. L. Hu,Albert Roura
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-007-9338-x
Abstract: This paper delineates the first steps in a systematic quantitative study of the spacetime fluctuations induced by quantum fields in an evaporating black hole. We explain how the stochastic gravity formalism can be a useful tool for that purpose within a low-energy effective field theory approach to quantum gravity. As an explicit example we apply it to the study of the spherically-symmetric sector of metric perturbations around an evaporating black hole background geometry. For macroscopic black holes we find that those fluctuations grow and eventually become important when considering sufficiently long periods of time (of the order of the evaporation time), but well before the Planckian regime is reached. In addition, the assumption of a simple correlation between the fluctuations of the energy flux crossing the horizon and far from it, which was made in earlier work on spherically-symmetric induced fluctuations, is carefully analyzed and found to be invalid. Our analysis suggests the existence of an infinite amplitude for the fluctuations of the horizon as a three-dimensional hypersurface. We emphasize the need for understanding and designing operational ways of probing quantum metric fluctuations near the horizon and extracting physically meaningful information.
Density-Dependent Cladogenesis in Birds
Albert B. Phillimore,Trevor D. Price
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060071
Abstract: A characteristic signature of adaptive radiation is a slowing of the rate of speciation toward the present. On the basis of molecular phylogenies, studies of single clades have frequently found evidence for a slowdown in diversification rate and have interpreted this as evidence for density dependent speciation. However, we demonstrated via simulation that large clades are expected to show stronger slowdowns than small clades, even if the probability of speciation and extinction remains constant through time. This is a consequence of exponential growth: clades, which, by chance, diversify at above the average rate early in their history, will tend to be large. They will also tend to regress back to the average diversification rate later on, and therefore show a slowdown. We conducted a meta-analysis of the distribution of speciation events through time, focusing on sequence-based phylogenies for 45 clades of birds. Thirteen of the 23 clades (57%) that include more than 20 species show significant slowdowns. The high frequency of slowdowns observed in large clades is even more extreme than expected under a purely stochastic constant-rate model, but is consistent with the adaptive radiation model. Taken together, our data strongly support a model of density-dependent speciation in birds, whereby speciation slows as ecological opportunities and geographical space place limits on clade growth.
Effects of Noise Bandwidth and Amplitude Modulation on Masking in Frog Auditory Midbrain Neurons
Jozien B. M. Goense, Albert S. Feng
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031589
Abstract: Natural auditory scenes such as frog choruses consist of multiple sound sources (i.e., individual vocalizing males) producing sounds that overlap extensively in time and spectrum, often in the presence of other biotic and abiotic background noise. Detection of a signal in such environments is challenging, but it is facilitated when the noise shares common amplitude modulations across a wide frequency range, due to a phenomenon called comodulation masking release (CMR). Here, we examined how properties of the background noise, such as its bandwidth and amplitude modulation, influence the detection threshold of a target sound (pulsed amplitude modulated tones) by single neurons in the frog auditory midbrain. We found that for both modulated and unmodulated masking noise, masking was generally stronger with increasing bandwidth, but it was weakened for the widest bandwidths. Masking was less for modulated noise than for unmodulated noise for all bandwidths. However, responses were heterogeneous, and only for a subpopulation of neurons the detection of the probe was facilitated when the bandwidth of the modulated masker was increased beyond a certain bandwidth – such neurons might contribute to CMR. We observed evidence that suggests that the dips in the noise amplitude are exploited by TS neurons, and observed strong responses to target signals occurring during such dips. However, the interactions between the probe and masker responses were nonlinear, and other mechanisms, e.g., selective suppression of the response to the noise, may also be involved in the masking release.
Emerging strategies and applications of pharmacogenomics
Patrice M Milos, Albert B Seymour
Human Genomics , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-1-6-444
Abstract:
Biological implications of 2-chlorocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione toward ribonuclease A  [PDF]
Albert R. Vaughn, Caitlin B. Redman, Sophia M. Kang, Jisook Kim
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.41004
Abstract: 2-Chlorocyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (CBQ) or 2-chloro1,4-benzquinone is one of the common metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated through industrial processes. This report describes the biological effects of CBQ toward ribonuclease A (RNase). We also investigated the inhibition of RNase modifications and the reactivity of CBQ toward selected amino acids. The study was carried out by incubating RNase or amino acids with CBQ in a concentration- and a time-dependent manner at 37°C and pH 7.0. SDS-PAGE results showed oligomerization as well as polymeric aggregation of RNase when incubated with CBQ as early as in 10 min. CBQ-induced RNase modifications were inhibited in the presence of NADH or ascorbic acid. CBQ reactivity toward selected amino acids was also evaluated by determining the second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBQ with selected amino acids. It was found that the reactivity toward CBQ decreased in the order of lysine > threonine > serine >> aspartate > cysteine.
Density-Dependent Cladogenesis in Birds
Albert B Phillimore ,Trevor D Price
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060071
Abstract: A characteristic signature of adaptive radiation is a slowing of the rate of speciation toward the present. On the basis of molecular phylogenies, studies of single clades have frequently found evidence for a slowdown in diversification rate and have interpreted this as evidence for density dependent speciation. However, we demonstrated via simulation that large clades are expected to show stronger slowdowns than small clades, even if the probability of speciation and extinction remains constant through time. This is a consequence of exponential growth: clades, which, by chance, diversify at above the average rate early in their history, will tend to be large. They will also tend to regress back to the average diversification rate later on, and therefore show a slowdown. We conducted a meta-analysis of the distribution of speciation events through time, focusing on sequence-based phylogenies for 45 clades of birds. Thirteen of the 23 clades (57%) that include more than 20 species show significant slowdowns. The high frequency of slowdowns observed in large clades is even more extreme than expected under a purely stochastic constant-rate model, but is consistent with the adaptive radiation model. Taken together, our data strongly support a model of density-dependent speciation in birds, whereby speciation slows as ecological opportunities and geographical space place limits on clade growth.
Accuracy of the quantum capacitor as a single-electron source
Mathias Albert,Christian Flindt,Markus Büttiker
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.041407
Abstract: A periodically driven quantum capacitor may function as an on-demand single electron source as it has recently been demonstrated experimentally. However, the accuracy at which single electrons are emitted is not yet understood. Here we consider a conceptually simple model of a quantum capacitor and find analytically the noise spectrum as well as the counting statistics of emitted electrons. We find that the failure rate of the capacitor can be arbitrarily small when operated under favorable conditions. Our theoretical predictions may be tested in future experiments.
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