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Interaction Between Emotion and Memory: Importance of Mammillary Bodies Damage in a Mouse Model of the Alcoholic Korsakoff Syndrome
Daniel Béracochéa
Neural Plasticity , 2005, DOI: 10.1155/np.2005.275
Abstract: Chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) can lead to the Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a memory deficiency attributed to diencephalie damage and/or to medial temporal or cortical related dysfunction. The etiology of KS remains unclear. Most animal models of KS involve thiaminedeficient diets associated with pyrithiamine treatment. Here we present a mouse model of CAC-induced KS. We demonstrate that CAC-generated retrieval memory deficits in working/ episodic memory tasks, together with a reduction of fear reactivity, result from damage to the mammillary bodies (MB). Experimental lesions of MB in non-alcoholic mice produced the same memory and emotional impairments. Drugs having anxiogenic-like properties counteract such impairments produced by CAC or by MB lesions. We suggest (a) that MB are the essential components of a brain network underlying emotional processes, which would be critically important in the retrieval processes involved in working/ episodic memory tasks, and (b) that failure to maintain emotional arousal due to MB damage can be a main factor of CAC-induced memory deficits. Overall, our animal model fits well with general neuropsychological and anatomic impairments observed in KS.
Investigation of a Simple and Cheap Source of a Natural Indicator for Acid-Base Titration: Effects of System Conditions on Natural Indicators  [PDF]
Daniel A. Abugri, Ohene B. Apea, Gregory Pritchett
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2012.23017
Abstract: This study investigated a natural indicator for acid-base titration which is extracted from guinea corn leaves popularly called “waakye leaves” in Ghana. Four types of acid-base titration were studied: strong acid versus (v/s) strong base, strong acid versus weak base, weak acid versus strong base, and weak acid versus weak base. The indicator color change, pH range and the average titre values were determined for each type of acid-base titration. These values were comparable to those obtained from three standard indicators: methyl orange, methyl red and phenolphthalein. Total flavonoids (TF) and condensed tannin (CT) from the crude leaves extract were determined which might be the major reasons for the activity of the extract as an indicator for simple acid-base titration. The authors suggest that the natural indicator is cheap, available, simple to extract, user and environmentally friendly and could be an excellent replacement for standard indicators.
Polynomial force approximations and multifrequency atomic force microscopy
Daniel Platz,Daniel Forchheimer,Erik A. Tholen,David B. Haviland
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We present polynomial force reconstruction from experimental intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) data. We study the tip-surface force during a slow surface approach and compare the results with amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy. Based on polynomial force reconstruction we generate high-resolution surface property maps of polymer blend samples. The polynomial method is described as a special example of a more general approximataive force reconstruction, where the aim is to determine model parameters which best approximate the measured force spectrum. This approximative approach is not limited to spectral data and we demonstrate how is can adapted to a force quadrature picture.
Simultaneous quantitative imaging of surface and magnetic forces
Daniel Forchheimer,Daniel Platz,Erik A. Tholen,David B. Haviland
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4812979
Abstract: We demonstrate quantitative force imaging of long-range magnetic forces simultaneously with near-surface van-der-Waals and contact-mechanics forces using intermodulation atomic force microscopy. Magnetic forces at the 200 pN level are separated from near-surface forces at the 30 nN level. Imaging of these forces is performed in both the contact and non-contact regimes of near-surface interactions.
Interaction imaging with amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy
Daniel Platz,Daniel Forchheimer,Erik A. Tholen,David B. Haviland
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2365
Abstract: Knowledge of surface forces is the key to understanding a large number of processes in fields ranging from physics to material science and biology. The most common method to study surfaces is dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM). Dynamic AFM has been enormously successful in imaging surface topography, even to atomic resolution, but the force between the AFM tip and the surface remains unknown during imaging. Here, we present a new approach that combines high accuracy force measurements and high resolution scanning. The method, called amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy (ADFS) is based on the amplitude-dependence of the cantilever's response near resonance and allows for separate determination of both conservative and dissipative tip-surface interactions. We use ADFS to quantitatively study and map the nano-mechanical interaction between the AFM tip and heterogeneous polymer surfaces. ADFS is compatible with commercial atomic force microscopes and we anticipate its wide-spread use in taking AFM toward quantitative microscopy.
The Open Packing of the Lesser Sac Technique in Infected Severe Acute Pancreatitis  [PDF]
Daniel Cochior, Silviu Constantinoiu, Dumitru Pe?a, Mariana Cochior, Rodica B?rl?, Lucian Pripi?i
Surgical Science (SS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2010.11002
Abstract: Aim: The goal of this study is to evaluate the open packing of the lesser sac (OPLS) in treatment of infected severe acute pancreatitis Methodology: The study was based on 98 cases in which this technique was applied during the period between 19942007, in two departments of surgery (Clinical Hospital CF 2 and Clinical Hospital ?Sf. Maria” Bucharest). The technique was applied based on the therapeutically protocol previously established beginning with 2000. The OPLS technique was analyzed relatively to: timing of surgery, the localization of the infected necrosis or abscesses, growing germs on the cultures, antibiotics received, executed primarily or at reintervention, the number of debridement, hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. The information was statistically processed using SPSS test version 17 for Windows. Results: The OPLS technique improved the control of the local sepsis, in the retrospective/prospective study in 83.7%. Mortality was 16.3% (16/98), with a global mortality of 26.3% (75/285) and a postoperative mortality of 29.5% (66/224). Conclusions: Considering the fact that the intensive care techniques are approximately the same in the last 15 years, we thought that this improvement in the survival rate may be due to the application of OPLS in cases with indication and optimal timing for surgery.
Giant Retropharyngeal Abscess in a Nigerian Adult Following Fish Bone Throat Injury  [PDF]
Stanley B. Amutta, Daniel Aliyu, Mohammed Abdullahi, Mohammed Danfulani, Yunusa A. Mufutau
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2013.26056
Abstract: Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is an uncommon disease entity that typically occurs in children under 5 years of age, which has the potential to cause upper airway obstruction. Upper respiratory tract infection is the most common predisposing factor to RPA in children while cervical spine tuberculosis and trauma are the major aetiological factors in the adult. We report a case of a 21-year-old Nigerian farmer with giant retropharyngeal abscess following fish bone throat injury causing life-threatening upper airway obstruction. The patient responded well to emergency tracheostomy, intraoral surgical drainage and empirical antibiotic therapy. We highlight the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of managing such a patient.
Assessing the Effects of Weather Conditions on Physical Activity Participation Using Objective Measures
Catherine B. Chan,Daniel A. Ryan
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph6102639
Abstract: Habitual physical activity is an important determinant of health, yet many people are considered to be inactive. Identification of the obstacles to greater participation is necessary for the development of strategies to overcome those obstacles. The weather has been identified as a perceived barrier to participation in physical activity, but exactly which adverse weather conditions are most important, and the extent to which they contribute to decreases in physical activity have rarely been quantified in populations. In the past decade, a small number of studies have used publicly available databases to examine the quantitative effects of weather (e.g., temperature, precipitation, wind) on physical activity in children, adolescents and adults. This review examines our historical, qualitative versus emerging, quantitative understanding of how specific weather conditions affect a population’s activity.
Individual freedoms versus collective responsibility: immunization decision-making in the face of occasionally competing values
Daniel A Salmon, Saad B Omer
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-13
Abstract: In extreme situations there may be a need to protect the health of an individual and particularly a child; even by overriding individual/parental autonomy. However, The American Academy of Pediatrics recently concluded that "Continued (vaccine) refusal after adequate discussion should be respected unless the child is put at significant risk of serious harm (as, for example, might be the case during an epidemic). Only then should state agencies be involved to override parental discretion on the basis of medical neglect".Many countries have compulsory immunization requirements. These laws curtail individual autonomy in order to protect the community from infectious diseases because unvaccinated individuals pose risk to the community – including vaccinated individuals (since vaccines are not 100% efficacious), children too young to be vaccinated, and persons who have medical vaccine contraindications. There are situations where there can be a real or perceived divergence between individual and community benefits of vaccination. This divergence may occasionally be based upon current scientific evidence and may exemplify the need for overriding individual autonomy. A divergence between individual and community benefits may also exist when there are ideological beliefs incongruent with vaccination or individuals are unaware of or do not accept available scientific evidence.When the state curtails individual freedoms for the collective good, it should address several issues including the magnitude of the individual and community risk, the strength of the individual's conviction, wider and long-term consequences of restricting individual autonomy, effective risk communication, best available scientific evidence, and transparency of the decision making process.Modern public health evolved in 19th century Europe under the shadow of utilitarian ideas of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill and retains its utilitarian leanings. However, the impulse to maximize benefit for the hi
An update on the use of Atripla in the treatment of HIV in the United States
Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S6366
Abstract: n update on the use of Atripla in the treatment of HIV in the United States Review (7043) Total Article Views Authors: Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein Published Date June 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 135 - 140 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S6366 Michael A Horberg1, Daniel B Klein2 1HIV Interregional Initiative, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California, USA; 2Department of Infectious Diseases, Kaiser Permanente Hayward Medical Center, Hayward, California, USA Abstract: Atripla (Gilead Sciences Inc, Foster City, CA, USA and Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York City, NY, USA) is a coformulated single pill composed of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil, intended as a once-daily potent combination antiretroviral therapeutic agent. Its efficacy is equivalent to the 3 component drugs taken in a combination as single medications. The coformulated antiretroviral regimen can be quite effective in patients whose human immunodeficiency virus is sensitive to all 3 components of Atripla. However, women at risk of pregnancy, already pregnant, or nursing mothers should not take Atripla, due to the teratogenic potential of the efavirenz moiety. Adverse effects are similar to those seen with the constituent medications, including potential central nervous system effects and renal toxicity. Since its US Food and Drug administration approval, prescriptions for Atripla have increased steadily.
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