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APRENDIZAJE DE LAS MATEMáTICAS POR MEDIO DEL MOVIMIENTO: UNA ALTERNATIVA MáS DE LA EDUCACIóN FíSICA
Serrano Madrigal Ariana,Azofeifa Lizano Ana,Araya Vargas Gerardo
Revista en Ciencias del Movimiento Humano y Salud , 2008,
Abstract: El propósito de este estudio fue determinar los efectos en el nivel cognitivo, en dos grupos de estudiantes de preparatoria, después de aplicar actividades físico recreativas, relacionadas en un grupo con contenidos de matemáticas y en el otro grupo con juegos recreativos. Participaron 27 sujetos (13 ni as y 14 ni os), con edades entre 5 y medio y 6 y medio a os. El instrumento que se utilizó fue un cuestionario sobre elementos fundamentales de las matemáticas, basados en los temarios del Ministerio de Educación Pública de Costa Rica, como lo fueron, geometría, operaciones básicas con elementos concretos y conocimiento del reloj. Una vez confeccionado el instrumento, se realizó un plan de actividades físico recreativas relacionadas a las matemáticas, el cual fue desarrollado durante un mes y medio con el grupo experimental (preparatoria B), mientras el otro grupo realizaba juegos recreativos. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó tanto estadística descriptiva como inferencial. Se encontraron efectos significativos y positivos del programa de actividades físico recreativas sobre el rendimiento de los y las estudiantes en 10 de los 12 ítems que fueron aplicados para valorar el dominio de conceptos básicos de las matemáticas. Se puede concluir que al utilizar la educación física como un instrumento más para el aprendizaje de otras disciplinas, representa una excelente alternativa para los docentes de preescolar que buscan satisfacer las necesidades de aprendizaje de los ni os y ni as que pronto irán a la escuela. El movimiento por medio de experiencias guiadas y planeadas, es parte indispensable en la vida de los ni os y ni as, por lo tanto, el aprendizaje de materias académicas debe adaptarse a la necesidad que ellos y ellas tiene de explorar y conocer su entorno.
Optimización del proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas de Swietenia macrophylla King (Orden: Meliacea)
José Bernal Azofeifa,Alejandra Rojas,Ana Hine
Tecnología en Marcha , 2009,
Abstract: Swietenia macrophylla es una especie de importancia económica en América Latina debido a la calidad de su madera, por lo cual las poblaciones se han disminuido en términos de cantidad y calidad genética. Por lo anterior, la técnica de cultivo de tejidos se utilizó para optimizar el proceso de enraizamiento y aclimatización de vitroplantas, empleando diferentes reguladores de crecimiento y medios de cultivo. El mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento (53,33%) se obtuvo en un medio de cultivo MS (1962) complementado con 5,7μM de AIA, seguido de un 26,67% cultivado en un MS 1/2 (1962) complementado con 2,5 μM de AIB y 0,25 μM de ANA. En la etapa de aclimatización, el mejor resultado de sobrevivencia (70%) se obtuvo con el sustrato biodegradable Jiffys .
Effect of the microfiltration process on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation protection capacity of blackberry juice
Azofeifa, Gabriela;Quesada, Silvia;Pérez, Ana-Mercedes;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000133
Abstract: phytochemicals are highly concentrated in berries, especially polyphenols as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. these compounds have been associated with antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation protection, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, obesity prevention and others. blackberries are commonly grown and consumed as juice in latin-american countries. however, blackberry juice is easily fermented and different industrial techniques are being applied to enable the juice to be stored for longer periods. one important issue required for these techniques is to preserve the health-promoting capacities of blackberries. this study compared the antioxidant activity and the lipid peroxidation protector effect between a fresh blackberry juice (fj) and a microfiltrated blackberry juice (mj). chemical analysis of both juices show less polyphenols concentration in the mj. despite this difference, values for biological activities, such as protection of lipid peroxidation, was not significantly different between fj and mj. these results suggest that the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity are maintained even after microfiltration and the free radical scavenging capacity of these compounds could protect the initiation of lipid peroxidation. microfiltration could be used as an industrial technique to produce blackberry juice that maintains biological activities of polyphenols.
Effect of the microfiltration process on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation protection capacity of blackberry juice
Gabriela Azofeifa,Silvia Quesada,Ana-Mercedes Pérez
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: Phytochemicals are highly concentrated in berries, especially polyphenols as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. These compounds have been associated with antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation protection, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, obesity prevention and others. Blackberries are commonly grown and consumed as juice in Latin-American countries. However, blackberry juice is easily fermented and different industrial techniques are being applied to enable the juice to be stored for longer periods. One important issue required for these techniques is to preserve the health-promoting capacities of blackberries. This study compared the antioxidant activity and the lipid peroxidation protector effect between a fresh blackberry juice (FJ) and a microfiltrated blackberry juice (MJ). Chemical analysis of both juices show less polyphenols concentration in the MJ. Despite this difference, values for biological activities, such as protection of lipid peroxidation, was not significantly different between FJ and MJ. These results suggest that the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity are maintained even after microfiltration and the free radical scavenging capacity of these compounds could protect the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Microfiltration could be used as an industrial technique to produce blackberry juice that maintains biological activities of polyphenols.
Resultados de la categorización de una muestra de pacientes con diagnóstico de egreso de esquizofrenia
Ana Patricia Montero,Teresa Balderas,Mariana Pereira,Arturo Lizano
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2002,
Abstract: La esquizofrenia es una enfermedad que afecta aproximadamente al 1% de la población mundial. Es una de las enfermedades psiquiátricas más debilitantes con un alto costo económico, social, familiar y personal. En Costa Rica, la esquizofrenia constituye la primera causa de internamiento entre los desórdenes psiquiátricos en el Hospital Nacional Psiquiátrico. El presente estudio analiza el diagnóstico preliminar de los primeros 120 pacientes incluidos en el proyecto sobre la Genética de la Esquizofrenia. Al comparar el diagnóstico del entrevistador, el diagnóstico final por consenso y el diagnóstico del último egreso hospitalario se encontraron diferencias en alrededor del 40% de los sujetos en el estudio. Se encontró un relativo sub-registro de la sintomatología afectiva en los diagnósticos de egreso con el consecuente sobre-diagnostico de los trastornos esquizofrénicos en los hospitales nacionales. El trastorno esquizoafectivo fue uno de los diagnósticos con menor concordancia. Las diferencias diagnósticas encontradas pueden ser parcialmente explicadas por el uso de pautas diagnósticas diferentes y/o una mayor rigurosidad diagnóstica utilizada en investigación que no es necesaria en la clínica. Sin embargo, la concurrencia de diferentes síntomas en las enfermedades psiquiátricas severas y las limitaciones impuestas por la categorización diagnóstica, obliga al psiquiatra a encasillar al paciente en una categoría que puede no representar completamente la enfermedad de ese paciente. El contar con marcadores biológicos en un futuro podría servir para clasificar estos síndromes en entidades diagnósticas más precisas, a explicar la fisiopatología de estas enfermedades y mejorar el tratamiento. Approximately 1% of the world population is affected with schizophrenia. It is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders with a high economic, social, familial and personal cost. In Costa Rica, it is the first cause of hospitalization among psychiatric disorders at the National Psychiatric Hospital. This study analyses the diagnosis of the first 120 subjects included in the Genetic Study of Schizophrenia. Approximately 40% of the cases were discordant for the diagnosis when comparing the diagnosis of the interviewer, the final consensus diagnosis and the last discharg diagnosis. The last hospital discharge diagnosis showed a relative sub-registry of affective symptoms and an over-diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorders was the least concordant. The differences found could be partly explained by the use of different diagno
The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica
Azofeifa,Jorge;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: a five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in costa rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of dmd/bmd at the national children?s hospital (hnn). this center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in costa rica. rev. biol. trop. 52(3): 485- 490. epub 2004 dic 15.
The dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica
Jorge Azofeifa
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: A five-years long study aiming to describe the basic genetic epidemiology of the dystrophinopathies in Costa Rica recruited 31 patients with clinical symptoms of DMD/BMD at the National Children’s Hospital (HNN). This center is the obligate reference hospital of the national health system for genetic diseases, however, the geographic origin of the patients, a low percentage of deletions and a high proportion of de novo mutations found among them indicate that a significant ascertainment bias impedes a substantial scientific approach to confront and alleviate the problems posed by these severe diseases in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3): 485- 490. Epub 2004 Dic 15. Un estudio de cinco a os tendiente a describir la epidemiología genética básica de las distrofinopatías en Costa Rica detectó 31 pacientes con sintomatología de DMD o de BMD en el Hospital Nacional de Ni os (HNN), el centro de referencia del sistema nacional de salud para enefrmedades hereditarias, sin embargo, la distribución geográfica de los pacientes, un bajo porcentaje de deleciones y una muy elevada proporción de mutaciones de novo indican que un significante sesgo de averiguación impide el estudio científico de riguroso tendiente a disminuir el impacto de estas enfermedades en Costa Rica.
PROBLEMAS DE OXIDACIóN Y OSCURECIMIENTO DE EXPLANTES CULTIVADOS IN VITRO
álvaro Azofeifa
Agronomía Mesoamericana , 2009,
Abstract:
The STR polymorphism (AAAAT)n within the intron 1 of the tumor protein 53 (TP53) locus in 17 populations of different ethnic groups of Africa, America, Asia and Europe
Azofeifa,Jorge; Hahn,Meinhard; Ruiz,Edward; Hummerich,Lars; Morales,Ana I; Jiménez,Gerardo; Barrantes,Ramiro;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2004,
Abstract: the str (aaaat)n within intron 1 of the tp53 locus was screened in 17 populations from 3 main ethnic groups: europeans, asiatics, and africans, and from the hybrid population of costa rica (1968 samples). three alleles, 126/7 (bp/copies of the repeat), 131/8 and 136/9 were the most prevalent in all populations. other alleles rarely reached frequencies of 10% or higher. observed heterozygosities ranged between 0.351 and 0.829. patterns of diversity fit well with both the geographic origin of the samples and the history of the populations screened. a statistical test suggests that single-step mutational events have been the main mechanism producing new alleles at this locus. fixation indexes (rst ) for this marker showed an effect of population subdivision on divergence only within the asiatic group; they were insensitive at the level of major ethnic groups as well as within africans and within europeans. rev. biol. trop. 52(3): 645-657. epub 2004 dic 15.
Determinants of scientific output: an in-depth view of the productivity of tropical botanist and conservationist, Luis Diego Gómez Pignataro
Monge-Nájera,Julián; Nielsen-Mu?oz,Vanessa; Azofeifa,Ana Beatriz;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: bibliometric studies have found that male researchers have their greatest productivity around the age of 40, that female researchers produce less than their male colleagues, that incentives for collaboration are slow to affect productivity and that, just like humans, research institutes become larger, less productive, more expensive to maintain and less able to raise money as they grow old. almost invariably, these conclusions come from statistical studies of large numbers of european and american scientists, and there are practically no studies about tropical researchers. we present an in-depth analysis of the productivity of an internationally recognized tropical botanist and conservationist, luis diego gómez pignataro, based on the totality of his published work and on our own knowledge, as co-workers and friends, of the life frame in which that scientific output was produced. his life output departs from the expected pattern in that he had the highest productivity before reaching the expected peak productivity age, and that when he reached it his productivity fell and never recovered. furthermore, marriage did not produce the expected fall in productivity. a close analysis of his life indicates that in the middle of his career he switched to intense teaching and conservation activities, and this better explains why his output of scientific research articles was low afterwards. this switch may occur in other tropical scientists. rev. biol. trop. 58 (4): 1093-1114. epub 2010 december 01.
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