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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6961 matches for " Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan "
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Effect of Erbium Nanoparticles on Optical Properties of Zinc Borotellurite Glass System
Azlan Muhammad Noorazlan,Halimah Mohamed Kamari,Siti Shafinas Zulkefly,Daud W. Mohamad
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/940917
Abstract: Erbium nanoparticles (NPs) doped zinc borotellurite glasses have been prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique with the chemical composition (where ). The structural properties of the prepared glasses were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and FTIR analysis. It was confirmed that the prepared glasses are amorphous. The bonding parameters of the glasses were analyzed by using FTIR analysis and were confirmed to be ionic in nature. The refractive index increases as the content of erbium NPs increases. The optical absorption spectra revealed that fundamental absorption edge shifts to longer wavelength as the content of erbium NPs increases. The value of band gap had been calculated and shown to be decreased with an increase content of erbium NPs. The Urbach energy was shown to be linearly increased with an increase content of erbium NPs oxides. 1. Introduction Rare-earth doped materials have made the largest interest to develop the photonic system for various applications with regard to their advance optical properties. Erbium oxide is one of the most potential candidates among the lanthanide group in the pursuit of photonic materials research. Erbium consists of trivalent electron which is known to be advantaged to fiber amplifier applications. Nowadays, special attention is paid to explore the optical behavior of the Er3+ ions due to its emission at 1.53?μm, which is ideal for applications in the field of optical data transmission [1]. The choice of a suitable host matrix is important to obtain the excellent optical properties. Tellurite oxide is known to be the best candidate among the heavy metal materials because of its unique optical and electrical properties. The compatibility and solubility of tellurite based glass to the other oxide glasses are the most excellent among the heavy metals. Recently, tellurite based glass has been used in several photonic devices such as precursors for infrared fibers and windows. Formation of pure tellurite oxide glass does not occur without contributions from external element. Borate oxide is known as the best choice to stabilize the glass formation due to its good rare earth ion solubility and hardness. The borate matrix possesses well defined gathering of BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra to form stable borate groups such as diborate, triborate, and tetraborate [2]. Contributions of zinc oxide in the glass formation reduce the melting point and increases the glass forming ability. It has been reported that [3] the effect of zinc oxide decreases the optical energy gap and increase the
The Safety of Drinking Bottled Water Based on the Law of Negligence: Malaysian Perspectives
Muhammad Rizal Razman,Azrina Azlan
Environmental Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: The law of negligence plays an important role in protecting individual from polluted and contaminated drinking water. The use of the law of negligence in the area of an individual s protection is largely in reply to the necessity of each individual to protect his rights and interests in consuming drinking water. Therefore, this study will examine the use of the law of negligence in relation to the individual protection on the drinking water safety from Malaysian legal perspectives, identify actions and cases, which deal with individual protection on polluted and contaminated drinking water from the Malaysian legal perspectives and lastly, discuss the law of negligence as a means to protect individuals from polluted and contaminated drinking water in Malaysia.
Kamarul Zaman Ahmad,Azlan Muhammad,Zunaidi Hassan
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n3p62
Abstract: Studies on the fit between the person and the environment i.e. P-E fit are widespread. One aspect of P-E fit is values congruence i.e. the fit or similarity between the values of the organization and the employees’ values. However, there has been no study that reported the congruence between an organization’s value hierarchy (i.e. the ranking of its values) and those of its employees. This study investigates the value hierarchy congruence between the Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF) and its soldiers and the relationship with satisfaction. A sample of 214 officers in the MAF was obtained. When the top 5 values were used in analyses, value hierarchy congruence scores were significantly correlated with soldiers’ satisfaction (-.120, p<0.05). This suggests that not only should the values of the soldiers and the organizations be similar or congruent, but the priority or ranking of these values are important as well.
I-PRESENTTM: An Involutive Lightweight Block Cipher  [PDF]
Muhammad Reza Z’aba, Norziana Jamil, Mohd Ezanee Rusli, Md. Zaini Jamaludin, Ahmad Azlan Mohd Yasir
Journal of Information Security (JIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jis.2014.53011

This paper proposes a new involutive light-weight block cipher for resource-constraint environments called I-PRESENTTM. The design is based on the Present block cipher which is included in the ISO/IEC 29192 standard on lightweight cryptography. The advantage of I-PRESENTTM is that the cipher is involutive such that the encryption circuit is identical to decryption. This is an advantage for environments which require the implementation of both circuits. The area requirement of I-PRESENTTM compares reasonably well with other similar ciphers such as PRINCE.

Maximum Likelihood Detection for Detect-and-Forward Relay Channels  [PDF]
Azlan Abd Aziz, Yasunori Iwanami
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.42011
Abstract: This paper introduces a simple combining technique for cooperative relay scheme which is based on a Detect-and-Forward (DEF) relay protocol. Cooperative relay schemes have been introduced in earlier works but most of them ignore the quality of the source-relay (S-R) channel in the detection at the destination, although this channel can contribute heavily to the performance of cooperation schemes. For optimal detection, the destination has to account all possible error events at the relay as well. Here we present a Maximum Likelihood criterion (ML) at the destination which considers closed-form expressions for each symbol error rate (SER) to facilitate the detection. Computer simulations show that significant diversity gain and Packet Error Rate (PER) performance can be achieved by the proposed scheme with good tolerance to propagation errors from noisy relays. In fact, diversity gain is increased with additional relay nodes. We compare this scheme against the baseline Cooperative-Maximum Ratio Combining (C-MRC).
A Simple Symbol Estimation for Soft Information Relaying in Cooperative Relay Channels  [PDF]
Azlan Abd Aziz, Yasunori Iwanami
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.49068
Abstract: This paper proposes Symbol-based Soft Forwarding (SSF) protocol for coded transmissions which is based on a simple proposed soft symbol estimation at relay nodes. We present a simple strategy of forwarding soft information based on a simple linear summation of likelihood functions of each symbol. Specifically, with SSF, we demonstrate that exclusion of decoding at the relays costs no significant performance loss. To validate our claims, we examine bit error rate (BER) performance for the proposed scheme against the baseline SF scheme through computer simulations. We find that the proposed scheme can obtain considerable performance gains compared to the conventional relaying protocol.
Total Quality Management (TQM) Adoption in Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG) Industry: A Conceptual Model  [PDF]
Farhana Rashid, Che Azlan Taibb
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2016.611102
Abstract: Bangladesh Ready-Made Garments (RMG) sector shows remarkable growth and significant contribution in the country’s economic development though product and service qualities are yet a considerable problem to worry about. RMG companies in Bangladesh are not fully aware about the impacts and value of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. Actually they mostly give emphasis on ISO 9000 execution and various researches show that application of this only enhances problems. Researchers argue that effective implementation of TQM practices is a main criteria and predictor of gaining sustainability in business. So, for being competitive in the long run, RMG industry in Bangladesh should focus more on TQM practices rather than taking advantages out of the cheapest labors. As, it is notable to mention that in case of Bangladesh RMG sector, most of the existing literatures give more emphasis and discuss about the infrastructural and strategic matters whereas TQM and Human Resource Management (HRM) practices in an attempt to improve sustainable competitive advantage are still a debate both theoretically as well as empirically. In this aspect, literatures proved that, no previous studies were conducted to verify the association among practices of TQM, sustainable competitive advantage as well as the role of HRM as a mediator to build TQM climate in Bangladesh RMG sector. In order to bridge this gap and to generate a more comprehensive argument, this paper further proposes and aims at providing a tool, a procedural framework, to enhance TQM in various RMG companies operating in Bangladesh via the development of appropriate TQM model which will ensure organizational sustainable competitive advantage where HRM practices will consider as mediating variable. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed in conclusion of this research.
How Relevant Are Chess Composition Conventions?
Azlan Iqbal
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Composition conventions are guidelines used by human composers in composing chess problems. They are particularly significant in composition tournaments. Examples include, not having any check in the first move of the solution and not dressing up the board with unnecessary pieces. Conventions are often associated or even directly conflated with the overall aesthetics or beauty of a composition. Using an existing experimentally-validated computational aesthetics model for three-move mate problems, we analyzed sets of computer-generated compositions adhering to at least 2, 3 and 4 comparable conventions to test if simply conforming to more conventions had a positive effect on their aesthetics, as is generally believed by human composers. We found slight but statistically significant evidence that it does, but only to a point. We also analyzed human judge scores of 145 three-move mate problems composed by humans to see if they had any positive correlation with the computational aesthetic scores of those problems. We found that they did not. These seemingly conflicting findings suggest two main things. First, the right amount of adherence to composition conventions in a composition has a positive effect on its perceived aesthetics. Second, human judges either do not look at the same conventions related to aesthetics in the model used or emphasize others that have less to do with beauty as perceived by the majority of players, even though they may mistakenly consider their judgements beautiful in the traditional, non-esoteric sense. Human judges may also be relying significantly on personal tastes as we found no correlation between their individual scores either.
Consumer Protection and Environmental Sustainability on Drinking Bottled Water from Malaysian Sale of Goods Law Perspectives: Focusing on Statutory Implied Terms
Muhammad Rizal Razman,Sakina Shaik Ahmad Yusoff,Shamsuddin Suhor,Azrina Azlan,Rahmah Ismail,Azimon Abdul Aziz,Kartini Aboo Talib Khalid
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2012.36.40
Abstract: Environmental sustainability is based on the concept of sustainable development. Environmental sustainability promotes the capacity to sustain the quality of life for consumer in order to safeguard environment as well as to protect consumer against harm, especially towards better living environment for consumer. One of the national laws of Malaysia that harmonised the concept of sustainable development in order to achieve environmental sustainability for consumer protection is the Sale of Goods Act, 1957. Therefore, this study will discuss on how the Malaysian Sale of Goods Act, 1957 provides protection to consumer protection and environmental sustainability on drinking bottled water which focusing on statutory implied terms.
Consumer Protection on Food and Environmental Safety Based on Statutory Implied Terms in Malaysian Sale of Goods Law: Focusing on Urban Sustainability
Muhammad Rizal Razman,Azrina Azlan,Jamaluddin Md. Jahi,Kadir Arifin,Kadaruddin Aiyub,Azahan Awang,Z.M. Lukman
International Business Management , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/ibm.2010.134.138
Abstract: Consumers take part in essential role in contributing to the development of the country s economy which include urban region as the result there are many conferences, symposiums and seminars which have been organised for the purpose to enhance the awareness on their rights. Therefore, this study will discuss on how the Malaysian statutory implied terms in the sale of goods law provide protection to consumer protection on food and environmental safety focusing on urban sustainability. The core reference of this study is based on Malaysian Sale of Goods Act, 1957.
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