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Emerging Threats to Forests: Resilience and Strategies at System Scale  [PDF]
Timothy O. Randhir, Ayten Erol
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43A093
Abstract:

Forests provide multiple ecosystem services that are critical to sustain societies and ecosystems. Protecting the forest systems become imperative as human demand for forest products and services increase. In addition to current stressors, several emerging threats pose serious implications on the survival and sustainability of forest ecosystems. These include climatic change, invasive species, natural disasters, land use change, and pest/diseases that can severally impact the ability of forest to sustain ecosystem services. There is a need for using a systems-based framework to increase resilience of forest systems to cope with these threats. We review literature on these threats and propose a systems-framework for forest resilience. While strategies for each threat are often easier, comprehensive strategies that can handle multiple threats and specific to forest type is required. There is also a need for further research into forest resilience and landscape-scale response and resilience.

Climate Change Assessments for Lakes Region of Turkey
Ayten Erol
Ecologia Balkanica , 2012,
Abstract: Climate change is one of the most important challenges for forestry. Forests are known to be most efficient natural tools to ensure availability and quality of water in many regions. Besides, planning of forest resources towards water quality and quantity is essential in countries that are expected to face with more frequent drought periods in the next decades due to climate change. Watershed management concept has been supposed as the primary tool to plan natural resources in a more efficient and sustainable way by both academicians and practitioners to mitigate and adapt climate change. Forest cover among other land use types provides the best regulating mechanism to mitigate erosion, sedimentation, desertification, and pollution. In addition, climate change can potentially affect forest stand dynamics by influencing the availability of water resources. Therefore, the amount of forest cover in a watershed is an indicator of climate change mitigation and adaptation. Climate change is a concern and risk for the sustainability of water resources in Lakes Region of Turkey. The objective of this study is to make a comprehensive assessment in lake watersheds of the Lakes region considering the forest cover. For this purpose, the study gives a general view of trends in climatic parameters using Mann Kendall trend test. The results showed that Mann Kendall trend test for temperature and precipitation data is not enough to evaluate the magnitude of potential changes of climate in terms of forest cover. Understanding impacts of changes in temperature and precipitation on forest cover, runoff data should be evaluated with temperature and precipitation for watersheds of forest areas in Lakes Region.
Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Serpill Erol,Leyla Saglam,Ahmet Ozbek,Ayten Kadanali
Hepatitis Monthly , 2009,
Abstract: Background and Aims: A growing pile of evidence supports the notion that pulmonary involvement is one of the extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and vice versa.Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed: 1. A prevalence study of HCV infection among patients with COPD; 2. A prevalence study of COPD among patients with chronic HCV infection. COPD was diagnosed according to ATS/ERS guidelines. The prevalence of HCV infection in COPD group was compared with the result of a previous study which determined the prevalence of HCV infection in general population. Prevalence of COPD in patients with chronic HCV infection was also compared to those with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Results: The study included 108 patients with COPD, 68 patients with chronic HCV infection, and 60 patients with chronic HBV infection. HCV infection was observed in 8.3% of patients with COPD, and 1.2% of the control subjects (P= 0.000). The prevalence of COPD among patients with chronic HCV and HBV infection was 17.6%, and 5%, respectively (P=0.03). Comparing COPD-positive and -negative chronic HCV patients for risk factors for COPD revealed that only the mean age was higher in COPD-positive patients (60.8±9.1 years vs. 46.5±11.5 years, P=0.000). In multivariate analysis, age was found to be the only independent predictor of COPD in HCV group.Conclusions: Patients with COPD have increased prevalence of HCV infection, and patients with HCV infection, have increased prevalence of COPD. COPD may be an extrahepatic disease associated with HCV infection.
Alternative Approach to Time Evaluation of Schrodinger Wave Functions  [PDF]
Mustafa Erol
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.311211
Abstract: Time evaluation of wave functions for any quantum mechanical system/particle is essential nevertheless quantum mechanical counterpart of the time dependant classical wave equation does simply not appear. Epistemologically and ontologically considered time dependant momentum operator is initially defined and an Alternative Time Dependant Schrodinger Wave Equation (ATDSWE) is plainly derived. Consequent equation is primarily solved for the free particles, in a closed system, signifying a good agreement with the outcomes of the ordinary TDSWE. Free particle solution interestingly goes further possibly tracing some signs of new pathways to resolve the mysterious quantum world.
THE ROLE OF FUSION MECHANISM IN THE WORD FORMATION OF EARLY TURKIC LANGUAGES AND THE ETYMOLOGY OF ONE KINSHIP TERM F ZYON MEKAN ZMASININ TüRK D LLER N N ERKEN D NEM KEL ME TüRET M NDEK ROLü VE B R AKRABALIK TER M N N ET MOLOJ S
Ayten HACIYEVA
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: There are some cases of lexical correlations found in Turkic epos and written monuments in general that are interesting material both for the qualification of the role and place of the fusional mechanism in the structural development of the languages and for investigating of the development dynamics and tendencies of their structural peculiarities. The analysis of the lexical correlation o lan~ulan, o lak~ulak corroborates once more that word variability is not a problem of lexical level but of grammatical system. Thus, parallel examples in question are organically related to the problem of derivative long vowels that are not in line with the agglutinative structure of Turkic languages. Türk Destanlar nda ve eski yaz tlarda baz leksik dengeler, gerek Türk dillerinin yap sal evriminde fizyon mekanizmas n n rolünü ve konumunu belirlemede, gerekse bu evrimde yap sal zelliklerin geli me dinamiklerini ve e ilimlerini de erlendirmek a s ndan ilgi ekici bir ara t rma malzemesi sunmaktad r. De erlendirmelerimiz o lan-ulan, o lak-ulak gibi leksik dengelerin sadece kelime varyantl l ve leksik düzeyle ilgili olmad n , gramer sistemine de yans yan ortak bir durum olu turdu u fikrini de onaylayacak tarzdad r. yle ki, g zden ge irilen paralellik rnekleri Türk dillerinin eklemeli yap s na uymayan türeme ünlü uzunluklar problemiyle do rudan ba lant l olmaktad r.
Phototherapy Modalities and Protocols
Ayten Ferahba?
Turkderm , 2010,
Abstract: Over the past few years, the development of irradiation devices with new emission spectra has led to an expanded role for phototherapy in the treatment of skin diseases. This development is best illustrated by the increasing frequency with which 311 nm UVB phototherapy is used for the treatment of psoriasis and vitiligo, especially. Another example is UVA1 340-400 nm. UVA1 was first used to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, but it has been found to be efficacious in several other skin diseases. This is overview of the protocols for phototherapy with UV in the treatment of skin diseases as currently used according to recent literature review. There are, of course, other protocols in use that are effective.
Pedophilia: Clinical Features, Etiology and Treatment
Ayten Erdogan
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2010,
Abstract: There is a growing recognition that child sexual abuse is a critical public health problem. Child sexual abusement is not a medical diagnosis and is not necessarily a term synonymous with pedophilia. According to DSM-IV, a pedophile is an individual who fantasizes about, is sexually aroused by, or experiences sexual urges toward prepubescent children (generally <13 years) for a period of at least 6 months. It is difficult to estimate the true prevalence of pedophilia because few pedophiles voluntarily seek treatment. Most of the available data are based on individuals who have become involved with the legal system. Most individuals who engage in pedophilia are male. When compared with other sex offenders, pedophiles are in the older adult age range (age, 40-70 years). Pedophiles may engage in a wide range of sexual acts with children. These activities includes exposing themselves to children, looking at naked children, masturbating in the presence of children, physical contact, rubbing, fondling a child, engaging in oral sex, or penetration of the mouth, anus, and/or vagina. Generally, pedophiles do not use force to have children engage in these activities but instead rely on various forms of psychic manipulation and desensitization. People with pedophilia use internet to be a vehicle capable of meeting their needs: obtaining information, monitoring and contacting victims, developing fantasy, overcoming inhibitions, avoiding apprehension, and communicating with other offenders. The compulsive-aggressive trait is more pronounced in people with pedophilia. Generally they plan the sexual offending with the intention of relieving internal pressures or urges. Pedophiles generally experience feelings of inferiority, isolation or loneliness, low self-esteem, internal dysphoria, and emotional immaturity. There are likely multiple factors and multiple pathways involved in the development of pedophilia. Since there has been no treatment method that can alter the pedophile’s sexual orientation toward children, much of the focus of pedophilic treatment is on stopping further offenses against children. The combination of pharmacologic and behavioral treatment coupled with close legal supervision appears to help reduce the risk of repeated offense. Currently chemical castration; testosterone suppression by antiandrogenic therapy is a popular treatment option. Effective prevention is most effective means to manage the sexual abusement of children. For primary prevention and treatment, it is necessary to know the characteristics of pedophilia and understand the factors
RGüTLERDE ZAMAN Y NET M
Ayten AKATAY
Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi , 2003,
Abstract: In today’s world, the natural, technological, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors that organizations are in activities are continuously changing. Especially for last years, changes and im-provements in the area of information, communication and competition among companies have raised the number of activities for senior man-agers in organizations. Raised and complicated business and activities forced managers who work within a limited time units to feel time pressure densely. For this reason, this condition increases the impact of time and effective time usage especially for managers and organiza-tions. In this study, the topics of time management, time pitfalls, be-haviors and techniques of effective time management are analyzed.
University-Employer Cooperation  [PDF]
Erol ?ehu, Dana Dobri?
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2014.54026
Abstract: University-employer cooperation is one of the most important forms of cooperation in the economy, needed for economic development and sustainable growth and has become a key emphasis in higher education policy in recent years. The main goal is to achieve an equal partnership between universities and employers aimed at strengthening of economic development at the national, regional and local level. This goal can be achieved through active support (in information and knowledge) of local businesses and entrepreneurship in developing and realization of their ideas, and by linking students with their future employers, through various employer-seeking students associations and employers associations. Authors will analyze the university-employer cooperation in Poland, United Kingdom and Croatia and try to give an answer if the current cooperation is satisfying, and if is not, how it can be enhanced.
Problems of Diagnosis in Childhood Tuberculosis
Ayten Pamuk?u Uyan
Güncel Pediatri , 2008,
Abstract: The natural history and clinical manifestations of tuberculosis in children differ significantly from those of the disease seen in adults. Children have less specific signs and symptoms of disease and fewer positive mycobacterial cultures. Therefore, the diagnosis of tuberculosis in childhood is quite difficult, seldom confirmed and is based mainly on clinical signs, symptoms and special investigations. In this review, diagnostic criterions of tuberculosis in children were emphasized. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 26-30)
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