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The Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards on Employee Attitudes; Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support  [PDF]
Ayesha Ajmal, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Abrar, Muhammad Mahroof Khan, Shahnawaz Saqib
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2015.84047
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards on employee attitudes, job satisfaction and organizational commitment as well as the mediating role of perceived organizational support. Data were collected from banking sector of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The main objective was to focus the employee’s perception about the organizational support and employees’ satisfaction and organizational commitment. The mediation effect of perception of organizational support was analyzed between the relationship of intrinsic & extrinsic rewards and employee attitudes like organizational commitment and job satisfaction. The study revealed that employees felt positively about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Limitations and future directions had also been discussed.
Size Biased Lindley Distribution and Its Properties a Special Case of Weighted Distribution  [PDF]
Arooj Ayesha
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.86063
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a size biased Lindley distribution which is a special case of weighted distributions. Weighted distributions have practical significance where some types of biased occur in a density function, i.e. probability is proportional to the size of the variate, that’s why the proposed version of size biased Lindley is designed for such situations more reasonably and more precisely. Principle properties of the density function are also discussed in this paper such as moments, measure of skewness, kurtosis, moment generating function, characteristics generating function, coefficient of variation, survival function and hazard function which are derived for understanding the structure of the proposed distribution more briefly.
Extraction, Methylation and Quantification of Fatty Acids in Fast Food Items and Its Health Implications  [PDF]
Ayesha Wasti, Uzaira Rafique
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2013.33A2001

The research is designed to study the relationship of intake of fatty acids through fast food items, consumption trends and related health issues. Fried food products most commonly consumed at restaurants were selected. Food outlets of both branded and non-branded vendors were included in the study for comparison. Total fat content, Fatty acids and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME’s) in food samples were determined experimentally using titrimetric and spectrophotometric methods. Fatty acids of Stearic, Oleic and Myristic were extracted from each food sample using petroleum ether as extracting solvent, followed by conversion to FAME’s by treating the filtrate with methylamine, ethanol and sulphuric acid. A survey analysis using the questionnaire as a tool was also conducted. The results showed variable concentration in each sample. Total fat content was highest in French fries, followed by fish and chicken. Among the fatty acids, Stearic acid was found higher in concentration than other two fatty acids. The study concluded that the level of saturated fatty acids was 0.4 g (7.6%), which was securely under the allowable limit of daily value (on a 2000 calorie diet) of 3 g (15%).

The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: To find out causative pathogens and their frequency in study group in common cutaneousbacterial infection and determine antibacterial susceptibility pattern. Design: Samples were collected either by swabsfrom skin lesions or where required aspiration of tissue fluid followed by examination in the laboratory for identificationof organisms through culture on appropriate media and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Setting: Department ofDermatology Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Subjects: Hundred patients irrespective of age and sex who had notreceived antibiotic in last 72 hours, with a clinical diagnosis of any common cutaneous bacterial infection were selectedirrespective of any coexisting cutaneous or systemic disease. Results: The data was compiled and statistical analysiswas done by using SPSS version 10. Isolated colonies of Staphylococcus aureus were found in 52% of the cases whileStreptococcus pyogenes was found as a pure growth in 18% of the cases. Mixed cultures of both these organisms werefound in 30% of the cases. Staphylococcus aureus resistance to Penicillin (97.5%), Erythromycin (37.8%),Cotrimoxazole (31.7%), Cephradine (30.4%) and Tetracycline (34.1%). Resistance against Cloxacillin (3.6%) andGentamicin (2.4%) was much less. Among 82 isolated Staphylococcus aureus three isolated (3.6%) were found to beMRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus). Streptococcus pyogenes although found completely sensitiveto penicillins, showed resistance to Tetracycline (39.5%), Cotrimoxazole (31.2%) Erythromycin (27%) and Gentamicin(10.5%) Vancomycin sensitivity was shown by 100% of isolates. Conclusion: The comparison of this study withprevious studies indicates that problem of bacterial resistance amongst common cutaneous pathogens is increasing.The situation calls for creating awareness regarding dangers of indiscriminate use of antibiotics.
Muhammad Ajmal
The Professional Medical Journal , 1997,
Abstract: OBJECTIVES : To find out a simple and effective method to stop haemorrhage and prevent haematormformation after nasal septal surgery. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Bahawal VictoriaHospital ENT department. PERIOD: Two years during 1993-1994 inclusive. SUBJECTS: 80 patientswith deflected nasal septam admitted for surgery (70 males and 10 females) Male: Female ratio 7:1METHOD: Quilting of the mucoperichondrial flaps. RESULTS: None of the patients had eitherhaemorrhag or haematoma. CONCLUSION: The surgical technique is simple, safe and effective
Muhammad Ajmal
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To find out various measurements and angles of Punjabi nose. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING: Punjab Medical College Faisalabad, Department ofOtorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. PERIOD: July 1999. MATERIALS &METHODS: Sixty volunteers, thirty boys and thirty girls were included in the study.Photographs were taken. Various measurements and angles were recorded from photographs and analysed.RESULTS: Mean nasolabial angle 88° in boys & 95° in girls, nasomental angle 123° in boys and 124° ingirls, nasofrontal angle 139° in girls and 125° in boys, nasofacial angle 36.8° in girls and boys wererecorded. The nasal base is noted to be wider in punjabies. Most of the people have two thirds of the faceequal in dimensions. CONCLUSION: This local data has been made available for the first time and thesemeasurements may be kept in mind during rhinoplasty.
Muhammad Ajmal
The Professional Medical Journal , 1995,
Abstract: Mononeuritis is least reported complication of infectious mononucleosis. A case of hypoglossal nerve palsydue to infectious mononucleosis is reported and other reported cases are reviewed. The prognosis for completerecovery is good.
Muhammad Ajmal
The Professional Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: 250 patients were included in a prospective, controlled clinical trial to find out the effectiveness of intranasalsplints in prevention of postoperative nasal adhesions. One group (125) had insertion of splints while theother group (125) did not. Associated morbidity was also assessed. The incidence of formation of nasaladhesions was 2% in splinted group as compared to 11.9% in the non-splinted group (P<0.05). The patientswho had multiple procedures were at higher risk of developing adhesions. The mean pain scores at packremoval and on 7 postoperative day were significantly high in splinted patients (p<0.001). The rate of thVestibulitis was 12% in splinted patients as compared to 2.55% in non-splinted patients. The complicationssuch as septal perforation, ulceration and posterior dislocation of splint were not significant. It is concludedthat splints should be used in carefully selected high risk patients.
Muhammad Ajmal
The Professional Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: Endoscopic sinus surgery is relatively a new development in ENT practice and requires a different approachto, and range of skills from, others area of speciality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the improvement in symptomsafter endoscopic sinus surgery as assessed by visual analogue score (VAS) and complications which mayoccur with this modality of treatment. DESIGN OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Family polyclinicBahawalpur and Faisal Hospital Faisalabad. PERIOD: Jun 1993 to Feb 2000 MATERIAL AND METHODS:A total of 50 patients who were considered fit for endoscopic sinus surgery underwent endoscopic examinationof nose apart from detailed history and routine examination of nose. These patients were assessed after x-rayPNS/CT scans, diagnosis established and explained to patients. After informed consent they were subjectedto endoscopic sinus surgery. RESULTS: Headache, nasal blockage and rhinorrhoea. were common presentingsymptoms. Middle meatus blocked by small polypi was common endoscopic findings. Best results of FESSwere seen in improvement of headache, congestion and blockage. Full recovery in rhinorrhoea was seen inonly 57% of patients. Number of complications was minimal .CONCLUSION: Fess has assumed an importantplace in the treatment of chronic sinusitis. Regular use of nasoendoscope in clinic and operation at earlierstage should be persuaded.
Critical Factors for Successful KM Initiatives in Project Background
Communications of the IBIMA , 2009,
Abstract: This paper aims to analyze different influencing factors to knowledge management initiatives in the project companies. It presents a model of critical factors, which have deep concerns for failure or success of knowledge management initiatives in projects. Based on literature and the survey-based research results, it finds out that non-availability of incentives and non-presence of appropriate system is the most significant barrier for successful KM initiatives in projects. It is advocated that project managers should harmonize KM practices with organization cultures by formulating an attractive incentive package for their project members to motivate them towards increased effort to suggest ideas for new KM opportunities and launch a user-friendly system before introducing KM initiatives.
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