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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3266 matches for " Ayano Nakamura "
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The Aggregation of Bentonite Using Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as a Flocculant  [PDF]
Ayano Nakamura, Kenji Murakami
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2018.64011
Abstract: Sedimentation tests of bentonite suspension were carried out by adding various concentrations of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) with different molecular weights as flocculant below and above lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Also, the effect of PNIPAM on aggregation of bentonite was investigated by sedimentation rate, turbidity of supernatant. Additionally, XRD patterns and SEM photographs were measured in order to consider aggregation mechanism of PNIPAM. The sedimentation rate and turbidity for the PNIPAM with large molecular weight or PNIPAM solution of high concentration above LCST were faster and clearer than those with small molecular weight or low concentration. From XRD patterns, the peak of bentonite sediment with PNIPAM shifted to the low-angle side, suggesting that a part of PNIPAM chain entered between bentonite layers. Furthermore, it was confirmed by SEM photographs that PNIPAM covered bentonite surface after sedimentation test. It was indicated that PNIPAM adsorbs on the bentonite surface and aggregates each bentonite particle above LCST. From these results, PNIPAM works as a flocculant and the PNIPAM with large molecular weight has a good ability.
The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands
Ayano Kunimitsu
Malaria Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-80
Abstract: All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis.The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96). Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07), illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15), the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22), and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06).The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics in regard to clinical malaria case reporting. Moreover, the high numbers of patients, illegible writing, the disuse of tally sheets, and insufficient resources at some clinics are likely to be related to the increase in the discrepancy. The clinical malaria case reporting at the local clinic level therefore urgently needs improvement, in order to achieve both better malaria surveillance and to also eventually eliminate this disease in the Solomon Islands.Malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities, which constitute the baseline data of the surveillance, is currently being carried out in most countries and the collected epidemiological information is submitted to the World Health Organization (WHO) [1]. Malaria reporting from national surveillance systems, however, varies in quality and reporting completeness [1,2]. The inadequat
Sigma Functions for Telescopic Curves
Takanori Ayano
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the sigma functions for algebraic curves expressed by a canonical form using a finite sequence $(a_1,...,a_t)$ of positive integers whose greatest common divisor is equal to one (Miura [13]). The idea is to express a non-singular algebraic curve by affine equations of $t$ variables whose orders at infinity are $(a_1,...,a_t)$. We construct a symplectic basis of the first cohomology group and the sigma functions for telescopic curves, i.e., the curves such that the number of defining equations is exactly $t-1$ in the Miura canonical form. The largest class of curves for which such construction has been obtained thus far is $(n,s)$-curves ([3][15]), which are telescopic because they are expressed in the Miura canonical form with $t=2$, $a_1=n$, and $a_2=s$, and the number of defining equations is one.
Rates of convergence for nearest neighbor estimators with the smoother regression function
Takanori Ayano
Statistics , 2011, DOI: 10.1587/transinf.E94.D.2244
Abstract: In regression analysis one wants to estimate the regression function from a data. In this paper we consider the rate of convergence for the nearest neighbor estimator in case that the regression function is $(p,C)$-smooth. It is an open problem whether the optimal rate can be achieved by some nearest neighbor estimator in case that $p$ is on (1,1.5]. We solve the problem affirmatively. This is the main result of this paper. Throughout this paper, we assume that the data is independent and identically distributed and as an error criterion we use the expected $L_2$ error.
Hard Tissue-Forming Ability and Ultra-Micro Structure of Newly Developed Sponges as Scaffolds Made with Sodium Alginate Gel and Chondroitin Sulfate  [PDF]
Ayano Miyamoto, Masataka Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Maeda
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2018.1111024
Abstract: To regenerate teeth and bones, a scaffold is essential. Hydroxyapatite has been used in many studies, but scaffolds made of hydrogel or sponge are also effective. The hardness of hydroxyapatite is a disadvantageous property for shaping. A sponge is suitable as a scaffold because the shape of the scaffold can be matched to the defect. Sodium alginate (AL) has excellent biocompatibility and a sponge can be made from this gel by lyophilization. The purpose of this study was to promote hard tissue formation with a sponge made of AL gel or AL gel and chondroitin sulfate (Chs). Sponges were made from AL gel, which were then used as a scaffold to investigate their effectiveness for the formation of hard tissue or bone. Hard tissue formation in the pores of these AL sponges was estimated in vitro and in vivo. In the sponge made from AL gel, the concentration of AL and the addition of Chs affected bone formation. Concentration of AL would affect the shape and size of the pores. ALP activity in the sponges was also enhanced by Chs. The amount of osteocalcin (OC) produced in the sponge by rat bone marrow cells increased depending on the AL and Chs concentrations in the gel. The level of OC amount in the sponges made from AL gel containing Chs was notable in vivo. Bone formation in the sponge in vivo was affected by the addition of Chs in AL gel. The quantity of OC and the bone formation in AL sponges in subcutaneous tissue in vivo suggested that AL sponges can be useful as a scaffold.
Public health response to the combined Great East Japan Earthquake, tsunami and nuclear power plant accident: perspective from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan
Tomoya Saito,Ayano Kunimitsu
Western Pacific Surveillance and Response , 2011,
Abstract: At 14:46 on 11 March 2011, eastern Japan was struck by the largest earthquake in Japan's recorded history. With the epicentre off the Sanriku coast, the magnitude 9.0 quake triggered a tsunami, which together with the effects of the quake ignited a serious accident at a nuclear power plant. The damage was grave and widespread with the death toll as of 9 November 2011 at 15 835 and the number of missing and unaccounted for at 3664.1 Immediately after the earthquake, the Japanese Government, local governments in the stricken areas, hospitals, external organizations and volunteers launched coordinated relief and recovery activities. The role of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in a disaster includes securing medical and nursing care, providing public health services and ensuring the safety of food and water supplies.
On Addition Formulae for Sigma Functions of Telescopic Curves
Takanori Ayano,Atsushi Nakayashiki
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.3842/SIGMA.2013.046
Abstract: A telescopic curve is a certain algebraic curve defined by $m-1$ equations in the affine space of dimension $m$, which can be a hyperelliptic curve and an $(n,s)$ curve as a special case. We extend the addition formulae for sigma functions of $(n,s)$ curves to those of telescopic curves. The expression of the prime form in terms of the derivative of the sigma function is also given.
Favorable and unfavorable amino acid residues in water-soluble and transmembrane proteins  [PDF]
Hiroshi Nakashima, Ayano Yoshihara, Kei-ichiro Kitamura
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.61006
Abstract: We analyzed the amino acid residues present in the water-soluble and transmembrane proteins of 6 thermophilic and 6 mesophilic species of the domains Archaea and Eubacteria, and characterized them as favorable or unfavorable. The characterization was performed by comparing the observed number of each amino acid residue to the expected number calculated from the percentage of nucleotides present in each gene. Amino acids that were more or less abundant than expected were considered as favorable or unfavorable, respectively. Comparisons of amino acid compositions indicated that the water-soluble proteins were rich in charged residues such as Glu, Asp, Lys, and His, whereas hydrophobic residues such as Trp, Phe, and Leu were abundant in transmembrane proteins. Interestingly, our results found that although the Trp residue was abundant in transmembrane proteins, it was not defined as favorable by our calculations, indicating that increased numbers of a particular amino acid does not necessary indicate it is a favorable residue. Amino acids with high G + C content such as Ala, Gly, and Pro were frequently observed as favorable in species with low G + C content. Comparatively, amino acids with low G + C content such as Phe, Tyr, Lys, Ile, and Met were frequently observed as favorable in species with high G + C content. These are the examples to increase the supply of amino acids than expected. Amino acids with neutral G + C content, i.e., Glu and Asp were favorable in water-soluble proteins from all species analyzed, and Cys was unfavorable both in water-soluble and transmembrane proteins. These results indicate that amino acid compositions are essentially determined by the nucleotide sequence of the genes, and the amino acid content is altered by a deviation from expectation.
Negative Pressure Wound Therapy with Multiple Drainage Holes for the Treatment of Pressure Ulcer with Undermining: Case Reports  [PDF]
Hiroyuki Miura, Yumiko Ito, Tomoko Matsuda, Ayano Abe, Syun Kitaba
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31015

Noninvasive treatment of pressure ulcers with undermining is often difficult. To decrease the risk of bleeding in such conditions, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been applied. We treated a pressure ulcer with wide undermining using NPWT after opening drainage holes in the undermined area. This method can reduce the risk of bleeding and promote the rapid closure of the undermined area.

The Cell Sorting Process of Xenopus Gastrula Cells Progresses in a Stepwise Fashion Involving Concentrification and Polarization  [PDF]
Ayano Harata, Takashi Matsuzaki, Koichi Ozaki, Setsunosuke Ihara
CellBio (CellBio) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2013.22007

Animal pole cells (AC) and vegetal pole cells (VC) dissociated from early Xenopus gastrulae were intermingled, and the cell sorting process occurring within the aggregate was analyzed. The overall process of cell sorting was found to morphologically consist of two steps, “concentrification” and “polarization”, as designated here. First, AC and VC clusters emerged at random positions in the aggregate, and the individual clusters gradually assembled themselves by 5 hours in culture (5 hC), forming a concentric arrangement, in which the AC cluster was enveloped by the VC cluster. This concentrification step is essentially consistent with the descriptions in earlier studies. As the next step, the AC and VC clusters moved up and down from 7.5 to 12 hC, resulting in the vertical polarization, namely, a serial array just like in vivo. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that AC expressed both C- and E-cadherins, while VC only expressed C-cadherin, as in vivo, suggesting the normal participation of cadherin system. On the other hand, the actin localization showed that the actin bundles accumulated at the edge of the AC cluster until the concentrification was completed, and gradually decreased during the polarization step. Another important finding was that AC cluster could generate cartilage tissues during the long-term (7 days) culture, evidence for a healthy inductive interaction between the AC and VC. Taken together, the present experimental system allows the AC and VC to be viable and grow into an embryo-like organization.

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