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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 464112 matches for " Axel A. Araneda "
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Option Pricing of Twin Assets
Marcelo J. Villena,Axel A. Araneda
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: How to price and hedge claims on nontraded assets are becoming increasingly important matters in option pricing theory today. The most common practice to deal with these issues is to use another similar or "closely related" asset or index which is traded, for hedging purposes. Implicitly, traders assume here that the higher the correlation between the traded and nontraded assets, the better the hedge is expected to perform. This raises the question as to how \textquoteleft{}closely related\textquoteright{} the assets really are. In this paper, the concept of twin assets is introduced, focusing the discussion precisely in what does it mean for two assets to be similar. Our findings point to the fact that, in order to have very similar assets, for example identical twins, high correlation measures are not enough. Specifically, two basic criteria of similarity are pointed out: i) the coefficient of variation of the assets and ii) the correlation between assets. From here, a method to measure the level of similarity between assets is proposed, and secondly, an option pricing model of twin assets is developed. The proposed model allows us to price an option of one nontraded asset using its twin asset, but this time knowing explicitly what levels of errors we are facing. Finally, some numerical illustrations show how twin assets behave depending upon their levels of similarities, and how their potential differences will traduce in MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) for the proposed option pricing model.
Stability and Chaos in a Multi-Market Oligopoly with Economies of Scale
Marcelo J. Villena,Axel A. Araneda
Quantitative Finance , 2015,
Abstract: In an oligopolistic setting under a Cournot scheme, the strategy of each economic player depends on its own quantity decision, but also on its rivals' reaction. Since Puu's seminal work, different oligopoly games have been studied in terms of their stability, as nonlinear discrete time varying systems. Most works in this line of research have concentrated on single markets with linear production structures (i.e. assuming constant returns to scale). Nevertheless, oligopolistic competition seems today to present multi-market phenomena, exhibiting, in some cases, important economies of scale, especially in the retail and service industry. In this paper, we study the stability of a multi-market Cournot-Nash equilibrium with global economies of scale. In other words, we look at the scale level that is related to the total production of firms, in all markets, as opposed to local economies of scale presented at each store individually. The modeling confirms the fact that economies and diseconomies of scale make the Cournot equilibrium very unstable for certain values of the scale of the producers. On the other hand, stability is achieved when the firm reaches absolute advantage with respect to its competition.
A new methodology which uses a mathematical procedure and pure substances for the determination of a TXRF spectrometer sensitivity curve
Axel Araneda,Leonardo Bennun,Vilma Sanhuezab
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The usual method for determining the sensitivity curve of a TXRF spectrometer relies on calibration using a set of vendor-certified concentration values of reference calibration standards. These samples, which are certified by the provider, are costly and their quality cannot be verified. We propose the use of pure substances for calibration, along with a mathematical procedure, that assures a high precision and accuracy of the results. The method described herein is economically efficient and eliminates having to deal with some uncertainties related to the concentration of the standard used in the usual method, thereby improving the quality of the TXRF results.
An evaluation of a diagnostic test to identify the sex of farmed rainbow trout, using sex-specific molecular markers Evaluación de un test diagnóstico para identificar el sexo en truchas arcoíris por medio de marcadores moleculares específicos
María E López,Cristian Araneda
Latin american journal of aquatic research , 2012,
Abstract: In trout farming males exhibits lower growth rate and precocious sexual maturation in contrast to females. Since these traits are detrimental for intensive production, all females populations are most appreciated by fish farmers. Molecular markers sex-specific have been developed for rainbow trout that can be useful to diagnose the phenotypic sex of individuals. We evaluated the use of two SCAR markers (OmyP9 & Omy163), which show polymorphisms between males and females in rainbow trout as a diagnostic test for sexing farmed trout. Adult trout (n = 131) were genotyped to assess the association of the SCAR markers with phenotypic sex. To evaluate the correct performance of the SCAR marker in sex diagnosis, each marker and both were analyzed to estimate its specificity (the proportion of males that are correctly identified), sensitivity (the proportion of females that are correctly identified) and predictive value (the probability of the correct positive or negative female identification). Significant associations with phenotypic sex of both SCAR markers with sex were found. The sensitivity and predictive (positive and negative) indexes show higher values when both SCAR markers were considered (95.7, 77.4 and 94.4%, respectively). For joined SCAR markers a likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.43 was obtained indicating its utility to establish a diagnostic test for sexing trout by use of marker-based analysis. En el cultivo de truchas los individuos del sexo masculino presentan menor tasa de crecimiento y maduración sexual precoz, características que no presentan las hembras. Debido a estos rasgos indeseables para el cultivo intensivo, el uso de poblaciones todo hembra es una práctica habitual en el cultivo de truchas. Para trucha arcoíris se han desarrollado marcadores moleculares sexo específico que pueden utilizarse en el diagnóstico temprano del sexo, en condiciones de cultivo. Se evaluó la aplicación de dos marcadores SCAR (OmyP9 y Omy163), que muestran polimorfismos entre los sexos en esta especie. Con ambos marcadores se genotipificaron 131 truchas para evaluar su asociación con el sexo fenotípico. Para determinar la utilidad en diagnóstico del sexo de cada marcador SCAR por separado, y en conjunto, se determinó la especificidad, sensibilidad y valores predictivos en la detección de un individuo de sexo femenino. Se comprobó la asociación significativa descrita para ambos SCAR con el sexo fenotípico. La mayor sensibilidad y valores predictivos positivo y negativo se obtuvo usando ambos marcadores simultáneamente (95,7; 77,4 y 94,4%; respectivamente). El val
Interactive spaces of communication and learning. The construction of identities
Sergio Ortega Santamaría,Juan Carlos Gacitúa Araneda
Revista de Universidad y Sociedad del Conocimiento , 2008,
Abstract: The environment has changed. The idea once had of our environment as "that which surrounds us" has been surpassed by the breaking down of physical barriers by the Internet. The new environment in which we act is being created by us ourselves through the products we are capable of building. Today we have the possibility of "existing" on the Internet, of creating and taking part in communities of interest, of demonstrating ourselves to the world through our own products, of telling others what interests us, what amuses us or shapes us, of producing information and re-editing it as often as we wish.The Web 2.0 has meant a rupture of spaces in formal lines, such as the platforms for learning. Our students "exist" on the Internet and create their digital identity, rich in nuances that complement learning, and which show us clearly what they are like and what is of interest to them. This article aims to determine the principles of participation in this new context.
Actividad de glutation peroxidasa (GSH-Px) en sangre de bovinos a pastoreo de la IX Región, Chile y su relación con la concentración de selenio en el forraje* Glutathion peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) in grazing dairy cattle in the south of Chile (IXth Region) and their relation with selenium contents in the forage
F. WITTWER,P. ARANEDA,A. CEBALLOS,P.A. CONTRERAS
Archivos de medicina veterinaria , 2002,
Abstract: Con el objeto de determinar la actividad sanguínea de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px; E.C. 1.11.1.9) en bovinos lecheros de la IX Región de la Araucanía (38o LS y 71o LO), Chile, y establecer su eventual asociación con el contenido de Se en el forraje, durante el oto o y la primavera de 1999 se tomaron muestras de forraje de las praderas y de sangre en grupos de vacas en inicio de lactancia y vaquillas en 12 predios lecheros. Se midió la concentración de Se en el forraje empleando la técnica de espectroscopía de plasma acoplado inductivamente con detector de masas (ICP-MS) y la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px mediante una técnica cinética compuesta NADPH-dependiente. La concentración de Se del forraje fue 0.03±0.02 ppm, donde un 83% presentó valores deficitarios (<0,05 ppm). La actividad de GSH-Px fue 129±112 U/g Hb, encontrando en las vacas una mayor actividad que en las vaquillas (p<0.05), con valores similares en oto o y primavera (p>0.05). Se encontró un 20% de los grupos analizados con valores deficitarios (< 60 U/g Hb) para la actividad enzimática. Se observó una asociación entre la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px en vaquillas con el contenido del mineral en el forraje (r=0.74; p<0.05). Los resultados permiten concluir que en la mayoría de los forrajes producidos por las praderas del área lechera de la IX Región de la Araucanía presentan bajas concentraciones de Se para ser empleados en la alimentación de bovinos de lechería y su consumo se asocia a una baja actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px que se ala deficiencias metabólicas de Se en los animales, viéndose mayormente afectadas las vaquillas tanto en oto o como en primavera The content of selenium (Se) in forage samples and the blood activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9) of groups of lactating cows and heifers were evaluated between autumn and spring of 1999 in 12 dairy herds from IXth Region (38o S and 71o W) of Chile. Se-concentration was determined in forage samples by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The activity of GSH-Px was determined through a kinetic technique NADPH-dependant. Mean, standard deviation and range were obtained, and the groups were compared by ANOVA test and the values compared to reference values. The content of Se in forage samples was 0.03±0.02 ppm, the range was between < 0.01 to 0.08 ppm. 83% of the samples had a Se-concentration below the minimum dietary requirements (<0.05 ppm) for grazing cattle. Blood activity of GSH-Px was 129±112 U/g Hb, and the range was 34-545 U/g Hb. There was not difference between autumn and spring (p>0.0
Animal Mind as Approached by the Transpersonal Notion of Collective Conscious Experience
Axel A. Randrup
International Journal of Transpersonal Studies , 2004,
Abstract: The discussion of animal mind in this paper is based on an idealist philosophy contending that only conscious experience is real, based on the transpersonal notion of collective conscious experience.The latter has earlier been explained by the author as experience referred to a group of humans as the subject, the We. Here it is contended that also a group of humans and animals can be seen as the subject of collective conscious experiences. The author argues that the notion of collective conscious experience provides a possibility for studying the problems of animal mind and the related human problem of “other minds” in a detailed and rational way.
Agenesia del Tercer Molar en Pacientes Atendidos en la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile
García-Hernández,Fernando; Araneda Rodriguez,Claudia Patricia;
International Journal of Morphology , 2009, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022009000200014
Abstract: agenesis is defined as the absence of teeth by genetic alterations isolated or syndromic. agenesis of third molar is associated to malformations and is considerate by diverse authors as a consequence of human evolution (larmour et al, 2005). the third molars are teeth with higher prevalence of agenesis together with seconds premolars and lateral incisive (fuller & denehy, 1984). the prevalence varies between 9% to 37% (mcnamara & foley, 2006). arboleda et al. (2006) indicated a prevalence of 20%. the literature notes statistical variables percentage by gender, dental arch, side, and tooth, with few articles on groups originating from chile. the population in study consisted of 52 men and 48 women between 14 and 26 years old, patients of the dental clinic of the universdad de antofagasta. all individuals were healthy, without any general or maxillofacial malformation without infectious diseases affecting the odontogenesis and dental eruption, without extractions of third molar and orthodontic treatment prior to the panoramic x-ray. a 20% of individuals with agenesis was determined, with 8.25% of agenesis respect the total number of third molars and 1.03% agenesis respect the total number of teeth. statistical analyses did not show significant differences at 95% level, with agenesis of third molar prevalence in females, in maxilla, in the left side, simple, being the left maxillary third molar the tooth that present many number of agenesis.
Agenesia del Tercer Molar en Pacientes Atendidos en la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile Third Molar Agenesis in Patients of Dental Clinic of the Universidad de Antofagasta, Chile
Fernando García-Hernández,Claudia Patricia Araneda Rodriguez
International Journal of Morphology , 2009,
Abstract: Se define agenesia como la ausencia de dientes por alteraciones genéticas aisladas o sindrómicas. La agenesia del tercer molar está asociada a malformaciones y es considerada por diversos autores, consecuencia de la evolución humana (Larmour et al., 2005). Son los dientes con mayor prevalencia de agenesia junto con segundos premolares e incisivos laterales (Fuller & Denehy, 1984). La prevalencia varía entre 9% y 37% (McNamara & Foley, 2006); Arboleda et al. (2006) se alan una prevalencia del 20%. La literatura indica variables estadísticas porcentuales, por género, por arcada dentaria, por lado y por diente, con escasos artículos sobre grupos originarios de Chile. La población en estudio consistió en 52 hombres y 48 mujeres, de 14 a 26 a os de edad, pacientes de la Clínica Odontológica de la Universidad de Antofagasta. Todos los individuos eran sanos, sin ninguna malformación general o maxilofacial, no habían presentado enfermedades infecciosas que afectaran la odontogénesis y los períodos de erupción dentarios, sin exodoncias de ningún tercer molar y tratamiento ortodóncico previo al examen radiográfico panorámico. Se determina un 20,0% de casos de agenesia, con 8,25% de agenesia, respecto a número total de terceros molares y 1,03% de agenesia de terceros molares en relación al total de dientes. No se determina ninguna diferencia estadística significativa al 95% de confianza, predominando la agenesia en el género femenino, a nivel maxilar, en el lado izquierdo, de tipo simple, siendo el tercer molar superior izquierdo el diente que presenta el mayor número de casos de agenesia. Agenesis is defined as the absence of teeth by genetic alterations isolated or syndromic. Agenesis of third molar is associated to malformations and is considerate by diverse authors as a consequence of human evolution (Larmour et al, 2005). The third molars are teeth with higher prevalence of agenesis together with seconds premolars and lateral incisive (Fuller & Denehy, 1984). The prevalence varies between 9% to 37% (McNamara & Foley, 2006). Arboleda et al. (2006) indicated a prevalence of 20%. The literature notes statistical variables percentage by gender, dental arch, side, and tooth, with few articles on groups originating from Chile. The population in study consisted of 52 men and 48 women between 14 and 26 years old, patients of the dental clinic of the Universdad de Antofagasta. All individuals were healthy, without any general or maxillofacial malformation without infectious diseases affecting the odontogenesis and dental eruption, without extractions of third molar an
Differential Expression of microRNAs in Maize Inbred and Hybrid Lines during Salt and Drought Stress  [PDF]
Yeqin Kong, Axel A. Elling, Beibei Chen, Xingwang Deng
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2010.12009
Abstract: Here, we analyzed whether the microRNA (miRNA) expression levels differ between maize inbred lines B73 and Mo17 and their reciprocal hybrids under salt and drought stress. We found that miR156, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR171 and miR319 are differentially expressed under abiotic stress. Interestingly, Mo17 × B73 showed the strongest change in miRNA expression in response to salt or drought stress, and was also the most resilient line when under abiotic stress in terms of water loss. In summary, our findings open the possibility that differential miRNA expression levels might be involved in heightened stress tolerance in maize hybrids.
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