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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 198 matches for " Awasthi Shanjana "
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Cytotoxic isolates of Helicobacter pylori from Peptic Ulcer Diseases decrease K+-dependent ATPase Activity in HeLa cells
Awasthi Shanjana, Ayyagari Archana
BMC Gastroenterology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-3-31
Abstract: The patients were retrospectively grouped on the basis of endoscopic and histopathological observation as having gastritis or peptic ulcer. The HeLa cells were incubated with the broth culture filtrates (BCFs) of H. pylori isolates from patients of both groups and observed for the cytopathic effects: morphological changes and viability. In addition, the K+-dependent ATPase activity was measured in HeLa cells extracts.The cytotoxin production was observed in 3/7 (gastritis) and 4/4 (peptic ulcer) H. pylori isolates. The BCFs of cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains reduced the ATPase activity of HeLa cells to 40% of that measured with non-cytotoxin producing H. pylori strains (1.33 μmole Pi/mg protein and 3.36 μmole Pi/mg protein, respectively, p < 0.05). The decreased activity of ATPase enzyme or the release of cytotoxin also correlated with the increased pathogenicity indices of the patients.Our results suggest that the isolation of cytotoxic H. pylori is more common in severe form of acid peptic diseases (peptic ulcer) than in gastritis patients from India. Also the cytotoxin released by H. pylori impairs the ion-transporting ATPase and is a measure of cytotoxicity.Helicobacter pylori is a spiral Gram negative, microaerophilic bacterial parasite that inhabitates gastric epithelium [1]. The long-term H. pylori infection has been found associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, B-cell lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach [2-4]. H. pylori infection is common in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that in developed countries 30–50% of the adult population is infected. In developing countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is noted even higher-approximately 80% [5,6]. Interestingly, not all the H. pylori infected individuals develop peptic ulcer or gastric cancer. A significant number of patients have milder form of disease, like inflammation in stomach and duodenum [7,8]. Such discriminatory behavior of H. pylori can be l
Lung Dendritic Cell Developmental Programming, Environmental Stimuli, and Asthma in Early Periods of Life
Shanjana Awasthi,Bhupinder Singh,Robert C. Welliver,Rodney R. Dietert
Journal of Allergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/176468
Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of our innate immune system. Their role is critical in inducing adaptive immunity, tolerance, or allergic response in peripheral organs—lung and skin. The lung DCs are not developed prenatally before birth. The DCs develop after birth presumably during the first year of life; exposures to any foreign antigen or infectious organisms during this period can significantly affect DC developmental programming and generation of distinct DC phenotypes and functions. These changes can have both short-term and long-term health effects which may be very relevant in childhood asthma and predisposition for a persistent response in adulthood. An understanding of DC development at molecular and cellular levels can help in protecting neonates and infants against problematic environmental exposures and developmental immunotoxicity. This knowledge can eventually help in designing novel pharmacological modulators to skew the DC characteristics and immune responses to benefit the host across a lifetime. 1. Introduction Asthma is a serious pulmonary disease that affects about 300 million people worldwide [1], and 8.2% (about 25 million) of the population within the USA [2]. A significant number of patients develop asthma during early childhood. A number of cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies in adult asthmatic patients suggest that the childhood asthma poses a risk for more severe asthma or relapse during adulthood [3–6]. One among ten children has asthma, and this trend has increased over the recent years [7]. Characteristics (airway obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, atopy, and recent wheeze) observed in children have been reported as predictors of asthma symptoms in adulthood. This is supported by evidence that the sensitization to allergens at young age increases the likelihood of asthma in adulthood [8–11]. In allergic asthma, an immune reaction is caused by inhaled allergens with an overwhelming inflammatory response and obstruction in the airways. As a first step in sensitization, the antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells—DCs, macrophages, and lung epithelial cells) take up and process the inhalant allergens. The DCs are recognized as the key immune sentinel cell in the peripheral organs, including lung [12], and are at the cross-roads of inducing tolerance or inflammation [13]. The DCs are activated directly or via cell-cell interaction [14]. The activated DCs in turn stimulate T and B cells and other immune cells, which release a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and chemical mediators. These mediators
Coccidioides posadasii infection alters the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D
Shanjana Awasthi, D Mitchell Magee, Jacqueline J Coalson
Respiratory Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-5-28
Abstract: In this study, we studied the changes in amounts of pulmonary SP-A, SP-D and phospholipid in murine model of Coccidioides posadasii infection, and binding of SP-A and SP-D to Coccidioidal antigens. Mice were challenged intranasally with a lethal dose of C. posadasii (n = 30 arthroconidia) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected on day 10, post infection. In another group of animals, mice were immunized with protective formalin killed spherule (FKS) vaccine prior to infection. The concentrations of BALF SP-A, SP-D, total phospholipid were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biochemical assays.We found that in lavage fluid samples of C. posadasii infected mice, the concentrations of total phospholipid, SP-A and SP-D were 17 % (SEM 3.5, p < 0.001), 38 % (SEM 5.8, p < 0.001) and 4 % (SEM 1.3, p < 0.001) of those in lavage fluid samples of non-infected control mice, respectively. However, the concentrations of SP-A and SP-D remained unchanged in BALF samples of C. posadasii protected mice after immunization with FKS vaccine. Also, we found that both SP-A and SP-D bind to Coccidiodal antigens.Our results suggest that the C. posadasii infection perturbs the pulmonary SP-A, SP-D, and phospholipids, potentially enabling the disease progression and promoting fungal dissemination.Coccidioidomycosis or Valley Fever is a fungal disease caused by the biphasic, highly virulent, soil-fungus Coccidioides immitis or posadasii [1]. It is endemic in the southwest regions of US, Northern Mexico and parts of Central America [2]. C. posadasii or C. immitis, are the most virulent fungal pathogens enlisted in Select Agent list and pose a risk for bioterrorism [3]. The primary infection is acquired by inhalation of air-borne, mycelial phase arthroconidium that converts into endosporulating spherule in the lung. Clinical manifestations of the disease range from pulmonary infection to a more severe fatal mycosis involving extra-pulmonary tissues in 1–10%
In vivo trafficking and immunostimulatory potential of an intranasally-administered primary dendritic cell-based vaccine
Prachi Vilekar, Vibhudutta Awasthi, Pallavi Lagisetty, Catherine King, Nathan Shankar, Shanjana Awasthi
BMC Immunology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2172-11-60
Abstract: We found that the primary DCs transfected with Coccidioides-Ag2/PRA-cDNA were of immature immunophenotype, expressed Ag2/PRA and activated na?ve T cells. In PET images and subsequent biodistribution, intranasally-administered DCs were found to migrate in blood, lung and thymus; lymphocytes showed generation of T effector memory cell population (TEM) and IFN-γ release.In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the intranasally-administered primary DC vaccine is capable of inducing Ag2/PRA-specific T cell response. Unique approaches utilized in our study represent an attractive and novel means of producing and evaluating an autologous DC-based vaccine.Coccidioidomycosis or Valley fever is caused by a dimorphic fungus: Coccidioides posadasii or C. immitis. Due to high virulence, both of the Coccidioides species: C. posadasii and C. immitis have been included in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID)'s list of Biodefense Pathogens and in the Center for Disease Control (CDC)'s list of Select Agents. Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in areas of Southwest US, Mexico and several countries of South America. The infection is initiated by inhalation of air-borne arthroconidia. An insufficient cell-mediated immunity promotes the formation of parasitic-phase endosporulating spherule structures in lung and hematogenous spread of organisms into non-pulmonary organs leading to more severe disseminated coccidioidomycosis [1]. The disseminated infection causes increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in people with immunocompromised conditions. African-Americans, Fillipinos and pregnant women are also at a high risk of developing disseminated coccidioidomycosis [2]. Among all the endemic fungal infections, coccidioidomycosis has generated a great interest in vaccine development because a prior infection engenders immunity, a large number of relapses and clinical failures are reported with the use of conventional antifungal-agents, the disease produces a
Performance Tradeoff with Routing Protocols for Radio Models in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Manju Bala, Lalit Awasthi
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2011.22008
Abstract: In this paper, we have simulated and evaluated the performance tradeoff with routing protocols: Constrained Flooding, the Real-Time Search and the Adaptive Tree on MICA and MICAz platform with different radio models using PROWLER for wireless sensor networks. The simulation results establish that the MICAz motes give low latency, high throughput, high energy consumption, low efficiency but better lifetime while the MICA motes give high success rate and less loss rate. It has been, thus, concluded that in case of all the radio models the MICAz is preferably better than MICA in applications where energy is a constraint. Moreover, use of MICAz motes increases the network lifetime in comparison to MICA for the radio models. Further, the AT protocol can be applied to achieve better energy consumption, efficiency and lifetime in real time for wireless sensor networks.
Mathematical Model of Blood Flow in Small Blood Vessel in the Presence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Rekha Bali, Usha Awasthi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.22031
Abstract: A mathematical model for blood flow in the small blood vessel in the presence of magnetic field is presented in this paper. We have modeled the two phase model for the blood flow consists of a central core of suspended erythrocytes and cell-free layer surrounding the core. The system of differential equations has been solved analytically. We have obtained the result for velocity, flow rate and effective viscosity in presence of peripheral layer and magnetic field .All the result has been obtained and discussed through graphs.
A Casson Fluid Model for Multiple Stenosed Artery in the Presence of Magnetic Field  [PDF]
Rekha Bali, Usha Awasthi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.35066
Abstract: The flow of blood through a multistenosed artery under the influence of external applied magnetic field is studied. The artery is modeled as a circular tube. The effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood in small blood vessels has been taken into account by modeling blood as a Casson fluid. The effect of magnetic field, height of stenosis, parameter determin- ing the shape of the stenosis on velocity field, volumetric flow rate in stenotic region and wall shear stress at surface of stenosis are obtained and shown graphically. Some important observations regarding the flow of blood in multi stenosed artery are obtained leading to medical interest.
Can Social Support and Control Agency Change Illness Consequences? Evidence from Cervix Cancer Patients  [PDF]
Purnima Awasthi, Ramesh C. Mishra
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2013.23018
Abstract: Research has demonstrated facilitative effects of social support on psychological and physical well-being of individuals suffering from chronic health problems. Social support can change not only patients’ perception of their health problems, but also the consequences of their illness. In the present study with cervix cancer patients, the relationship of social support and illness control agency with illness consequences and health outcome beliefs was examined. Emotional, informational, social companionship and practical supports were found to be negatively correlated with the severity of interpersonal, physiological and psychological consequences of illness. Patients’ belief in self-control and doctor-control was related to less severity and less pain of illness, and strong hope for better health outcomes.
Analysis of Activation Energies & Experimental Evidence for Energetic Phase Separation in GexSe1-xGlassy System  [PDF]
Deepak Sharma, Anand Mohan Awasthi
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2014.42005
Abstract: Glass science reveals peculiar properties due to the lack of long range order and presence of heterogeneity in Chalcogenide glasses. In thermal studies, structural relaxation at the glass transition region is governed by the activation energy of the cooperative unit (zU). In the cooperative molecular dynamics, we are considering the analysis of three activation energies, namely activation energy per BMS (U), activation energy of the cooperative unit (zU) and the apparent activation energy (z2U). From the energetic dynamics of activation energy analysis across the GexSe1-x glass series, data represent three-phase segregation. From our data, we also observed that the value of UCRR/RTg across the GexSe1-x glass series is nominally changed from 34.343 to 36.19.
Mathematical Analysis on Pulsatile Flow through a Catheterized Stenosed Artery  [PDF]
Shafi Ullah Siddiqui, Chhama Awasthi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.59157
Abstract: In this paper, the pulsatile flow of blood through an inclined catheterized stenosed artery is analyzed. Perturbation method is used to solve the implicit system of partial differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. Various analytical expressions axial velocity, flow rate, wall shear stress and effective viscosity have been derived with the help of MATLAB for understanding the fluid flow phenomena. The combined effect of catheterization, body acceleration, slip and inclination has been seen by plotting the graph and observed that axial velocity and flow rate increases with the increase in body acceleration, inclination angle and slip velocity while axial velocity diminishes on increasing the catheter radius. Wall shear stress increases with the increase in catheter radius and body acceleration but presence of slip velocity reduces the wall shear stress. Effective viscosity diminishes on increasing body acceleration and inclination angle, whereas slightly augmented in non-inclined stenosed artery.
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