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Two New Protocols for Fault Tolerant Agreement
Poonam Saini,Awadhesh Kumar Singh
International Journal of Distributed and Parallel Systems , 2011,
Abstract: The paper attempts to handle failures effectively, while reaching agreement, in a distributed transaction processing system. The standard protocols such as BFTDC [3], Zyzzyva [4] and PBFT [5] handle the problem to a greater extent. However, the limitation with these protocols is that they incur increased message overhead as well as large latency. Moreover, the nodes are evacuated from the transactionsystem after being declared faulty. We propose a novel proactive based agreement which identifies the tentative failures in the system. To improve the failure resiliency with minimum execution overhead, we also propose an optimized reactive view change mechanism. Both mechanisms have been analyzed and compared. The dynamic analysis of the protocol reflects that, in a faulty scenario, the proactive approach is computationally more efficient with reduced latency as compared to reactive one. Moreover, unlike PBFT and BFTDC, our agreement protocol runs in two phases, which leads to reduced message overhead and total execution time. The protocol treats the fail-silent (i.e. crashed) nodes in the system.
Characterization of organic materials by LIBS for exploration of correlation between molecular and elemental LIBS signals
Shikha Rai,Awadhesh Kumar Rai
AIP Advances , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3650860
Abstract: The present study is performed for the preparation of a database by accumulating LIBS spectra of 4-nitroaniline and 4-nitrotoluene in air and argon. Changes in the behavior of the molecular bands of the C2 Swan system and CN violet system as well as of atomic lines of C, H and N in the LIBS signal are appreciable in argon. In order to explore the correlation between observed LIBS signal and molecular composition of these materials, normalized intensities of the emission lines have been estimated for each compound. It has been found that the relative rates of increase/decrease in the normalized intensities for all sets are higher for 4-nitrotoluene in argon. The cause of the higher rate for 4-nitrotoluene might be due to the possession of a distinctive functional group. The ultimate goal behind the whole study is to use this data-base as input for the discrimination of energetic materials.
Fault Tolerance In Grid Computing: State of the Art and Open Issues
Ritu Garg,Awadhesh Kumar Singh
International Journal of Computer Science and Engineering Survey , 2011,
Abstract: Fault tolerance is an important property for large scale computational grid systems, wheregeographically distributed nodes co-operate to execute a task. In order to achieve high level of reliabilityand availability, the grid infrastructure should be a foolproof fault tolerant. Since the failure of resourcesaffects job execution fatally, fault tolerance service is essential to satisfy QOS requirement in gridcomputing. Commonly utilized techniques for providing fault tolerance are job checkpointing andreplication. Both techniques mitigate the amount of work lost due to changing system availability but canintroduce significant runtime overhead. The latter largely depends on the length of checkpointing intervaland the chosen number of replicas, respectively. In case of complex scientific workflows where tasks canexecute in well defined order reliability is another biggest challenge because of the unreliable nature ofthe grid resources.
On Detecting Termination in Cognitive Radio Networks
Shantanu Sharma,Awadhesh Kumar Singh
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1002/nem.1870
Abstract: The cognitive radio networks are an emerging wireless communication and computing paradigm. The cognitive radio nodes execute computations on multiple heterogeneous channels in the absence of licensed users (a.k.a. primary users) of those bands. Termination detection is a fundamental and non-trivial problem in distributed systems. In this paper, we propose a termination detection protocol for multi-hop cognitive radio networks where the cognitive radio nodes are allowed to tune to channels that are not currently occupied by primary users and to move to different locations during the protocol execution. The proposed protocol applies credit distribution and aggregation approach and maintains a new kind of logical structure, called the virtual tree-like structure. The virtual tree-like structure helps in decreasing the latency involved in announcing termination. Unlike conventional tree structures, the virtual tree-like structure does not require a specific node to act as the root node that has to stay involved in the computation until termination announcement; hence, the root node may become idle soon after finishing its computation. Also, the protocol is able to detect the presence of licensed users and announce strong or weak termination, whichever is possible.
Mobility and Energy Conscious Clustering Protocol for Wireless Networks
Abhinav Singh,Awadhesh Kumar Singh
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we present a distributed clustering protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. A large majority of research in clustering and routing algorithms for WSNs assume a static network and hence are rendered inefficient in cases of highly mobile sensor networks, which is an aspect addressed here. MECP is an energy efficient, mobility aware protocol and utilizes information about movement of sensor nodes and residual energy as attributes in network formation. It also provides a mechanism for fault tolerance to decrease packet data loss in case of cluster head failures.
Therapeutic Effects of Essential Oil from Waste Leaves of Psidium guajava L. against Cosmetic Embarrassment Using Phylogenetic Approach  [PDF]
Ahsan Kamran, Rohit Mishra, Rita Gupta, Awadhesh Kumar, Ashok Bajaj, Anupam Dikshit
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.36090
Abstract: Medicinal plants are facing threats due to loss of habitat and overexploitation of knows species. Therefore the present work shows utilization of essential oil from discarded leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. against human dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum canis. The oil was found to be fungicidal at 3.0 μl/ml and it tolerated heavy inoculum of pathogens at fungicidal concentrations. The fungicidal activity of the oil was thermostable, up to 70°C and shelf life was found to be six months, which was maximum the time taken into consideration. The oil having cineole, caryophyllane, copaene, azulene and eucalyptol as main constituents, exhibited broad fungicidal activity. The oil did not show any adverse effect on mammalian skin upto 5% concentration. Phylogeny of the dermatophytes with respect to toxicity of the oil has also been discussed using molecular data. The cost effective formulation from waste leaves can be exploited after undergoing double blind successful multicentral topical testing.
MANUFACTURING PERFORMANCE AND EVOLUTION OF TPM
ASHOK KUMAR SHARMA,SHUDHANSHU,AWADHESH BHARDWAJ
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: To improve productivity it is essential to improve the performance of the manufacturing systems. This system consists of various resources like labour, materials, tools, plant and equipment, and others, used for production.The desired production output is achieved through high equipment availability, which is influenced by equipment reliability and maintainability. Maintenance function is therefore vital for sustainable performance of any manufacturing plant, since, a proper maintenance plan improve the equipment availability and reliability.The paper describes the maintenance (Total Productive Maintenance) as strategy to improve manufacturing performance. Further, 5S as the base of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and overall equipmenteffectiveness (OEE) as a measure of effectiveness have also been discussed.
A Survey on 5G: The Next Generation of Mobile Communication
Nisha Panwar,Shantanu Sharma,Awadhesh Kumar Singh
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: The rapidly increasing number of mobile devices, voluminous data, and higher data rate are pushing to rethink the current generation of the cellular mobile communication. The next or fifth generation (5G) cellular networks are expected to meet high-end requirements. The 5G networks are broadly characterized by three unique features: ubiquitous connectivity, extremely low latency, and very high-speed data transfer. The 5G networks would provide novel architectures and technologies beyond state-of-the-art architectures and technologies. In this paper, our intent is to find an answer to the question: "what will be done by 5G and how?" We investigate and discuss serious limitations of the fourth generation (4G) cellular networks and corresponding new features of 5G networks. We identify challenges in 5G networks, new technologies for 5G networks, and present a comparative study of the proposed architectures that can be categorized on the basis of energy-efficiency, network hierarchy, and network types. Interestingly, the implementation issues, e.g., interference, QoS, handoff, security-privacy, channel access, and load balancing, hugely effect the realization of 5G networks. Furthermore, our illustrations highlight the feasibility of these models through an evaluation of existing real-experiments and testbeds.
Verifying mutual exclusion and liveness properties with split preconditions
Verifying Mutual Exclusion and Liveness Properties with Split Preconditions

Awadhesh Kumar Singh,Anup Kumar Bandyopadhyay,
AwadheshKumarSingh
,AnupKumarBandyopadhyay

计算机科学技术学报 , 2004,
Abstract: This work is focused on presenting a split precondition approach for the modeling and proving the correctness of distributed algorithms. Formal specification and precise analysis of Peterson's distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for two process has been considered. The proof of properties like, mutual exclusion, liveness, and lockout-freedom have also been presented.
A Study of Backbone Based Approaches Use for Data Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey
Awadhesh Kumar,,Dr. Neeraj Tyagi,,Vinay Kumar,,Prabhat Singh
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: wireless sensor networks consist of sinks, events, and a large number of tiny, multifunctional and battery-powered sensor nodes. Thousands of the sensor nodes are randomly distributed over a vast field to self-organize a large-scale wireless sensor network. The sensor nodes monitor some events in surrounding environments, such as temperature, humidity, sound, vibration, presence of objects, and so on. In Wireless Sensor Networks, data dissemination to multiple mobile sinks consumes a lot of energy. Various grid-based data dissemination schemes have been proposed over the years to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks. Energy is one of the most important aspects for designing a data dissemination protocol for the applications such as battle-field monitoring, habitat monitoring etc.
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