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Search Results: 1 - 8 of 8 matches for " Avedis Kazanjian "
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Darwin hoy
Avedis Aznavurian
Reencuentro , 2012,
Abstract: En el siglo XXI, las ideas expresadas por Charles Darwin siguen provocando discusiones y polémicas que trascienden el ámbito de la ciencia y se enfrentan, dentro de las ciencias biológicas, a puntos de vista divergentes acerca de la ortodoxia darwiniana planteando hipótesis evolucionistas con fundamentos científicos; en este artículo se examinan también las posibilidades y los logros en este siglo, revisando las interpretaciones y la aplicación de las ideas básicas a problemas científicos actuales como la conciencia y la medicina darwiniana
Atonal homolog 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene
Wouter Bossuyt,Avedis Kazanjian,Natalie De Geest,Sofie Van Kelst,Gert De Hertogh,Karel Geboes,Greg P. Boivin,Judith Luciani,Francois Fuks,Marinee Chuah,Thierry VandenDriessche,Peter Marynen,Jan Cools,Noah F. Shroyer,Bassem A. Hassan
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000039
Abstract: Colon cancer accounts for more than 10% of all cancer deaths annually. Our genetic evidence from Drosophila and previous in vitro studies of mammalian Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, also called Math1 or Hath1) suggest an anti-oncogenic function for the Atonal group of proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. We asked whether mouse Atoh1 and human ATOH1 act as tumor suppressor genes in vivo. Genetic knockouts in mouse and molecular analyses in the mouse and in human cancer cell lines support a tumor suppressor function for ATOH1. ATOH1 antagonizes tumor formation and growth by regulating proliferation and apoptosis, likely via activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, colorectal cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma patients show genetic and epigenetic ATOH1 loss-of-function mutations. Our data indicate that ATOH1 may be an early target for oncogenic mutations in tissues where it instructs cellular differentiation.
Atonal homolog 1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene
Wouter Bossuyt equal contributor,Avedis Kazanjian equal contributor,Natalie De Geest,Sofie Van Kelst,Gert De Hertogh,Karel Geboes,Greg P Boivin,Judith Luciani,Francois Fuks,Marinee Chuah,Thierry VandenDriessche,Peter Marynen,Jan Cools,Noah F Shroyer ,Bassem A Hassan
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000039
Abstract: Colon cancer accounts for more than 10% of all cancer deaths annually. Our genetic evidence from Drosophila and previous in vitro studies of mammalian Atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1, also called Math1 or Hath1) suggest an anti-oncogenic function for the Atonal group of proneural basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. We asked whether mouse Atoh1 and human ATOH1 act as tumor suppressor genes in vivo. Genetic knockouts in mouse and molecular analyses in the mouse and in human cancer cell lines support a tumor suppressor function for ATOH1. ATOH1 antagonizes tumor formation and growth by regulating proliferation and apoptosis, likely via activation of the Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway. Furthermore, colorectal cancer and Merkel cell carcinoma patients show genetic and epigenetic ATOH1 loss-of-function mutations. Our data indicate that ATOH1 may be an early target for oncogenic mutations in tissues where it instructs cellular differentiation.
Actividades biológicas del extracto acuoso de la esponja Aplysina lacunosa (Porifera: Aplysinidae)
Kazanjian,Arda; Fari?as,Milagros;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: biological activity of an aqueons extract of the sponge aplysina lacunosa (porifera: aplysinidae). the aqueous extract and protein precipitate of aplysina lacunosa (pallas, 1776) were studied to assess their hemagglutinating, hemolysing, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. specimens of the marine sponge were collected in el morro de tigüitigüe, santa fe, sucre state, venezuela. the active protein was separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and its molar mass estimated by sds-page electrophoresis. the sponge a. lacunosa has a protein with a molar mass of about 43 000 daltons which is capable of agglutinating human erythrocytes of the blood groups a, b, and o in a strong and unspecific mode. the assayed samples did not evidence any hemolysing activity. as for the antibacterial assay, only the aqueous extract was able to inhibit the growth of enterococcus faecalis, bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, and salmonella enteritidis, with inhibition halos of 24, 20, 24, and 22 mm, respectively. none of the samples exhibited antifungal activity. the chemical analysis of the aqueous extract revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites. it is presumed that its hemagglutinating activity is mediated by agglutinative proteins. the antibacterial activity could be attributed to the presence of saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and polyphenols, which are highly antimicrobial compounds. poriferans are a rich source of bioactive compounds that can be used in the development of new drugs potentially useful in medicine. rev. biol. trop. 54 (suppl. 3): 189-200. epub 2007 jan. 15.
Actividades biológicas del extracto acuoso de la esponja Aplysina lacunosa (Porifera: Aplysinidae)
Arda Kazanjian,Milagros Fari?as
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: Evaluamos el extracto acuoso y precipitado de proteínas de Aplysina lacunosa, en relación con su actividad hemaglutinante, hemolizante, antibacteriana y antimicótica. Los ejemplares de la esponja marina fueron recolectados en el Morro de Tigüitigüe, Santa Fe, Estado Sucre, Venezuela. La proteína activa fue separada por cromatografía de exclusión molecular; y su masa molar fue estimada por electroforesis SDS-PAGE. La esponja A. lacunosa posee una proteína con masa molar aproximada de 4.000 Daltons capaz de aglutinar fuertemente y de manera inespecífica los eritrocitos humanos de los grupos sanguíneos A, B y O. No se observó actividad hemolizante por parte de las muestras ensayadas. únicamente el extracto acuoso fue capaz de inhibir el crecimiento de Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli y Salmonella enteritidis con halos de inhibición de 24, 20, 24, 22 mm, respectivamente; ninguna de las muestras exhibió actividad antifúngica. El análisis químico del extracto acuoso reveló la presencia de diversos metabolitos secundarios. Se presume que la actividad hemaglutinante se deba a la presencia de proteínas aglutinantes. La actividad antibacteriana podría atribuirse a la presencia de saponinas, alcaloides, taninos y polifenoles, compuestos altamente antimicrobianos. Los poríferos constituyen una fuente rica de compuestos bioactivos que pueden ser utilizados para el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos. Biological activity of an aqueons extract of the sponge Aplysina lacunosa (Porifera: Aplysinidae). The aqueous extract and protein precipitate of Aplysina lacunosa (Pallas, 1776) were studied to assess their hemagglutinating, hemolysing, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Specimens of the marine sponge were collected in El Morro de Tigüitigüe, Santa Fe, Sucre state, Venezuela. The active protein was separated by molecular exclusion chromatography and its molar mass estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The sponge A. lacunosa has a protein with a molar mass of about 43 000 Daltons which is capable of agglutinating human erythrocytes of the blood groups A, B, and O in a strong and unspecific mode. The assayed samples did not evidence any hemolysing activity. As for the antibacterial assay, only the aqueous extract was able to inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis, with inhibition halos of 24, 20, 24, and 22 mm, respectively. None of the samples exhibited antifungal activity. The chemical analysis of the aqueous extract revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites. It i
Viral load responses to HAART is an independent predictor of a new AIDS event in late stage HIV infected patients: prospective cohort study
Powel Kazanjian, Wei Wei, Morton Brown, Tejal Gandhi, Kamal Amin
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-3-40
Abstract: A cohort of patients with pre-therapy CD4 < 200/mm3 who had CD4 and VL measurements for > one year after receiving HAART at a university clinic were prospectively enrolled. Cox proportional multivariate regression model was used to determine whether CD4 and VL responses were independently associated with new AE.The patient (N = 214) mean baseline CD4 = 92/mm3, VL = 219,000 c/mL and follow-up duration 42.3 months (range 13–72 months). A new AE occurred in 56 patients; CD4 cell count response to HAART that remained < 200/mm3 throughout the study period was a significant risk factor for new AE (RR = 9.7–12.5; p < 0.001). Similarly, VL responses that remained > 5,000 c/mL during this period was also a significant risk factor (RR = 6.7–12.8; p = 0.001) that was independent of CD4 response adjusted for <> 200/mm3.Maintaining adequate long-term virologic responses to HAART provides a clinical benefit independent of CD4 responses.Despite an overall decline in AIDS-associated illnesses since the introduction of HAART [1,2], some patients receiving combination antiretrovirals remain at risk for developing new AIDS events (AE) [3,4]. Those who have a pre-treatment CD4 cell count < 200/mm3 [5-9] or have insufficient CD4 cell responses to HAART [6] are at risk for progressing to AIDS or dying while receiving therapy. Persistent viremia [10], independent of insufficient CD4 cell count responses [13-16], has also been shown to be a predictor of disease progression. These studies, however, have differed in regards to the VL that they identify as being predictive of disease progression-- > 1,000 c/mL [10], > 7,000 c/mL [13], or > 20,000 c/mL [11]. Furthermore, although these studies have linked short virologic markers in response to HAART with a successful clinical outcome [11-14], the importance of sustaining immunologic and virologic responses to HAART over a more prolonged time period remains to be addressed.It is important to evaluate whether maintaining adequate responses to lo
Mycobacterium avium complex immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: Long term outcomes
James Riddell, Daniel R Kaul, Petros C Karakousis, Joel E Gallant, Jennifer Mitty, Powel H Kazanjian
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-5-50
Abstract: Cases of MAC IRIS were retrospectively identified at four HIV clinics (Michigan, Maryland, Rhode Island, and Indiana) from 1996–2004. Patients were included if they were initially diagnosed with AIDS and found to have evidence of focal MAC infection documented by tissue culture or PCR after initiating HAART, and at least 6 months of follow up.Among the 20 patients included, the mean age was 40 years, mean CD4 cell count was 24/mm3 at pretreatment baseline and 100/mm3 at time of MAC IRIS diagnosis. Sites of disease included lymph nodes (15 patients [8 peripheral, 8 abdominal and 1 peripheral and abdominal]), gastrointestinal tract (7) and liver (3). Sixteen patients (80%) responded to treatment and were disease free after a mean of 17.4 months of therapy for MAC IRIS; IRIS therapy was withdrawn in 6 without relapse. Four patients (non-responder group) had persistent or relapsing disease despite 27 months of ongoing MAC IRIS treatment. At the time of resolution or last follow-up, the mean CD4 cell count and viral load was 143/mm3 and 7,000 c/mL for responders, and 65/mm3 and 17,000 c/mL for non-responders, respectively. Most patients with peripheral adenopathy were responders (7/8; 88%); many with abdominal adenopathy (4/8; 50%) were nonresponders.The majority of patients with MAC IRIS eventually responded to treatment. Our sample size was not adequate to perform statistical analysis, but there was a tendency towards adequate CD4 response to HAART and peripheral rather than intraabdominal adenopathy among responders.Focal manifestations of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may occur in AIDS patients with severe immune suppression after starting HAART [1,2]. This is thought to be the result of specific cell mediated immune response to MAC antigens associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The syndrome, referred to as the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), most often occurs within 3 months of initiating HAART, but may also occur year
Femtosecond laser treatment enhances DNA transfection efficiency in vivo
Shaw-Wei D Tsen, Chao-Yi Wu, Avedis Meneshian, Sara I Pai, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
Journal of Biomedical Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1423-0127-16-36
Abstract: In this report, we employed a very low power, near-infrared femtosecond laser technique to enhance the transfection efficiency of intradermally and intratumorally administered DNA plasmid.We found that femtosecond laser treatment can significantly enhance the delivery of DNA into the skin and into established tumors in mice. In addition, we found that both laser power density as well as duration of laser treatment are critical parameters for augmenting DNA transfection efficiency. The femtosecond laser technique employs a relatively unfocused laser beam that maximizes the transfected area, minimizes damage to tissue and simplifies its implementation.This femtosecond new laser technology represents a safe and innovative technology for enhancing DNA gene transfer in vivo.Gene therapy continues to evolve as an attractive approach for the treatment of many diseases (for reviews, see [1-11]). In particular, the use of plasmid DNA for gene therapy has several advantages which can circumvent the limitations and potential risks associated with viral vector-based DNA delivery. It is relatively safe, stable, and inexpensive to manufacture, making it attractive for application in the clinical arena. Furthermore, in contrast to viral vectors, DNA vaccines do not elicit anti-vector immune responses in the vaccinated patient, and, therefore, are well suited for indications likely to require multiple administrations in order to achieve and maintain target immune responses.The ideal approach for enhancing DNA vaccine potency is by improving the transfection efficiency with minimal tissue damage. Several physical techniques including electroporation and ultrasound have been employed in an effort to improve gene transfection efficiency. However, several safety concerns have been raised with the application of these approaches in humans (for reviews, see [12,13]). Therefore, continued exploration for new methods of enhancing DNA transfection efficiency while minimizing side effects is
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