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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 181 matches for " Avan Aihie Sayer "
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Nutrition and Sarcopenia: A Review of the Evidence and Implications for Preventive Strategies
Sian Robinson,Cyrus Cooper,Avan Aihie Sayer
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/510801
Abstract: Prevention of age-related losses in muscle mass and strength is key to protecting physical capability in older age and enabling independent living. To develop preventive strategies, a better understanding is needed of the lifestyle factors that influence sarcopenia and the mechanisms involved. Existing evidence indicates the potential importance of diets of adequate quality, to ensure sufficient intakes of protein, vitamin D, and antioxidant nutrients. Although much of this evidence is observational, the prevalence of low nutrient intakes and poor status among older adults make this a current concern. However, as muscle mass and strength in later life are a reflection of both the rate of muscle loss and the peak attained in early life, efforts to prevent sarcopenia also need to consider diet across the lifecourse and the potential effectiveness of early interventions. Optimising diet and nutrition throughout life may be key to preventing sarcopenia and promoting physical capability in older age. 1. Introduction Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength that occurs with advancing age [1]. Although definitions (and therefore estimates of prevalence) vary, it is widely recognised as a common condition among older adults, and one that is associated with huge personal and financial costs [1, 2]. Declining muscle mass and strength are expected components of ageing. However, the rate of decline differs across the population [1, 3], suggesting that modifiable behavioural factors such as diet and lifestyle may be important influences on muscle function in older age. This paper considers the evidence that links diet to muscle mass and strength, and implications for strategies to prevent or delay sarcopenia in older age. 2. Nutrition and Ageing Food intake falls by around 25% between 40 and 70 years of age [4]. In comparison with younger ages, older adults eat more slowly, they are less hungry and thirsty, consume smaller meals, and they snack less [4]. The mechanisms for the “anorexia of ageing” are not fully understood but there may be a range of physiological, psychological, and social factors that influence appetite and food consumption, including loss of taste and olfaction, increased sensitivity to the satiating effects of meals, chewing difficulties, and impaired gut function [4, 5]. The negative consequences of these changes are compounded by the effects of functional impairments that impact on the ability to access and prepare food, psychological problems such as depression and dementia, as well as the social effects of living and eating alone.
Current and future worldwide prevalence of dependency, its relationship to total population, and dependency ratios
Harwood,Rowan H.; Sayer,Avan Aihie; Hirschfeld,Miriam;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000400006
Abstract: objective: to estimate the number of people worldwide requiring daily assistance from another person in carrying out health, domestic or personal tasks. methods: data from the global burden of disease study were used to calculate the prevalence of severe levels of disability, and consequently, to estimate dependency. population projections were used to forecast changes over the next 50 years. findings: the greatest burden of dependency currently falls in sub-saharan africa, where the "dependency ratio" (ratio of dependent people to the population of working age) is about 10%, compared with 7-8% elsewhere. large increases in prevalence are predicted in sub-saharan africa, the middle east, asia and latin america of up to 5-fold or 6-fold in some cases. these increases will occur in the context of generally increasing populations, and dependency ratios will increase modestly to about 10%. the dependency ratio will increase more in china (14%) and india (12%) than in other areas with large prevalence increases. established market economies, especially europe and japan, will experience modest increases in the prevalence of dependency (30%), and in the dependency ratio (up to 10%). former socialist economies of europe will have static or declining numbers of dependent people, but will have large increases in the dependency ratio (up to 13%). conclusion: many countries will be greatly affected by the increasing number of dependent people and will need to identify the human and financial resources to support them. much improved collection of data on disability and on the needs of caregivers is required. the prevention of disability and provision of support for caregivers needs greater priority.
Current and future worldwide prevalence of dependency, its relationship to total population, and dependency ratios
Harwood Rowan H.,Sayer Avan Aihie,Hirschfeld Miriam
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of people worldwide requiring daily assistance from another person in carrying out health, domestic or personal tasks. METHODS: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study were used to calculate the prevalence of severe levels of disability, and consequently, to estimate dependency. Population projections were used to forecast changes over the next 50 years. FINDINGS: The greatest burden of dependency currently falls in sub-Saharan Africa, where the "dependency ratio" (ratio of dependent people to the population of working age) is about 10%, compared with 7-8% elsewhere. Large increases in prevalence are predicted in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Latin America of up to 5-fold or 6-fold in some cases. These increases will occur in the context of generally increasing populations, and dependency ratios will increase modestly to about 10%. The dependency ratio will increase more in China (14%) and India (12%) than in other areas with large prevalence increases. Established market economies, especially Europe and Japan, will experience modest increases in the prevalence of dependency (30%), and in the dependency ratio (up to 10%). Former Socialist economies of Europe will have static or declining numbers of dependent people, but will have large increases in the dependency ratio (up to 13%). CONCLUSION: Many countries will be greatly affected by the increasing number of dependent people and will need to identify the human and financial resources to support them. Much improved collection of data on disability and on the needs of caregivers is required. The prevention of disability and provision of support for caregivers needs greater priority.
Life Course Trajectories of Systolic Blood Pressure Using Longitudinal Data from Eight UK Cohorts
Andrew K. Wills ,Debbie A. Lawlor,Fiona E. Matthews,Avan Aihie Sayer,Eleni Bakra,Yoav Ben-Shlomo,Michaela Benzeval,Eric Brunner,Rachel Cooper,Mika Kivimaki,Diana Kuh,Graciela Muniz-Terrera,Rebecca Hardy
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000440
Abstract: Background Much of our understanding of the age-related progression of systolic blood pressure (SBP) comes from cross-sectional data, which do not directly capture within-individual change. We estimated life course trajectories of SBP using longitudinal data from seven population-based cohorts and one predominantly white collar occupational cohort, each from the United Kingdom and with data covering different but overlapping age periods. Methods and Findings Data are from 30,372 individuals and comprise 102,583 SBP observations spanning from age 7 to 80+y. Multilevel models were fitted to each cohort. Four life course phases were evident in both sexes: a rapid increase in SBP coinciding with peak adolescent growth, a more gentle increase in early adulthood, a midlife acceleration beginning in the fourth decade, and a period of deceleration in late adulthood where increases in SBP slowed and SBP eventually declined. These phases were still present, although at lower levels, after adjusting for increases in body mass index though adulthood. The deceleration and decline in old age was less evident after excluding individuals who had taken antihypertensive medication. Compared to the population-based cohorts, the occupational cohort had a lower mean SBP, a shallower annual increase in midlife, and a later midlife acceleration. The maximum sex difference was found at age 26 (+8.2 mm Hg higher in men, 95% CI: 6.7, 9.8); women then experienced steeper rises and caught up by the seventh decade. Conclusions Our investigation shows a general pattern of SBP progression from childhood in the UK, and suggests possible differences in this pattern during adulthood between a general population and an occupational population. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Age and Gender Differences in Physical Capability Levels from Mid-Life Onwards: The Harmonisation and Meta-Analysis of Data from Eight UK Cohort Studies
Rachel Cooper,Rebecca Hardy,Avan Aihie Sayer,Yoav Ben-Shlomo,Kate Birnie,Cyrus Cooper,Leone Craig,Ian J. Deary,Panayotes Demakakos,John Gallacher,Geraldine McNeill,Richard M. Martin,John M. Starr,Andrew Steptoe,Diana Kuh
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027899
Abstract: Using data from eight UK cohorts participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, with ages at physical capability assessment ranging from 50 to 90+ years, we harmonised data on objective measures of physical capability (i.e. grip strength, chair rising ability, walking speed, timed get up and go, and standing balance performance) and investigated the cross-sectional age and gender differences in these measures. Levels of physical capability were generally lower in study participants of older ages, and men performed better than women (for example, results from meta-analyses (N = 14,213 (5 studies)), found that men had 12.62 kg (11.34, 13.90) higher grip strength than women after adjustment for age and body size), although for walking speed, this gender difference was attenuated after adjustment for body size. There was also evidence that the gender difference in grip strength diminished with increasing age,whereas the gender difference in walking speed widened (p<0.01 for interactions between age and gender in both cases). This study highlights not only the presence of age and gender differences in objective measures of physical capability but provides a demonstration that harmonisation of data from several large cohort studies is possible. These harmonised data are now being used within HALCyon to understand the lifetime social and biological determinants of physical capability and its changes with age.
Body Mass Index, Muscle Strength and Physical Performance in Older Adults from Eight Cohort Studies: The HALCyon Programme
Rebecca Hardy, Rachel Cooper, Avan Aihie Sayer, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Cyrus Cooper, Ian J. Deary, Panayotes Demakakos, John Gallacher, Richard M. Martin, Geraldine McNeill, John M. Starr, Andrew Steptoe, Holly Syddall, Diana Kuh, on behalf of the HALCyon study team
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056483
Abstract: Objective To investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI) and grip strength with objective measures of physical performance (chair rise time, walking speed and balance) including an assessment of sex differences and non-linearity. Methods Cross-sectional data from eight UK cohort studies (total N = 16 444) participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, ranging in age from 50 to 90+ years at the time of physical capability assessment, were used. Regression models were fitted within each study and meta-analysis methods used to pool regression coefficients across studies and to assess the extent of heterogeneity between studies. Results Higher BMI was associated with poorer performance on chair rise (N = 10 773), walking speed (N = 9 761) and standing balance (N = 13 921) tests. Higher BMI was associated with stronger grip strength in men only. Stronger grip strength was associated with better performance on all tests with a tendency for the associations to be stronger in women than men; for example, walking speed was higher by 0.43 cm/s (0.14, 0.71) more per kg in women than men. Both BMI and grip strength remained independently related with performance after mutual adjustment, but there was no evidence of effect modification. Both BMI and grip strength exhibited non-linear relations with performance; those in the lowest fifth of grip strength and highest fifth of BMI having particularly poor performance. Findings were similar when waist circumference was examined in place of BMI. Conclusion Older men and women with weak muscle strength and high BMI have considerably poorer performance than others and associations were observed even in the youngest cohort (age 53). Although causality cannot be inferred from observational cross-sectional studies, our findings suggest the likely benefit of early assessment and interventions to reduce fat mass and improve muscle strength in the prevention of future functional limitations.
A Multi-Cohort Study of Polymorphisms in the GH/IGF Axis and Physical Capability: The HALCyon Programme
Tamuno Alfred, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rachel Cooper, Rebecca Hardy, Cyrus Cooper, Ian J. Deary, Tom R. Gaunt, David Gunnell, Sarah E. Harris, Meena Kumari, Richard M. Martin, Avan Aihie Sayer, John M. Starr, Diana Kuh, Ian N. M. Day, the HALCyon study team
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029883
Abstract: Background Low muscle mass and function have been associated with poorer indicators of physical capability in older people, which are in-turn associated with increased mortality rates. The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis is involved in muscle function and genetic variants in genes in the axis may influence measures of physical capability. Methods As part of the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) programme, men and women from seven UK cohorts aged between 52 and 90 years old were genotyped for six polymorphisms: rs35767 (IGF1), rs7127900 (IGF2), rs2854744 (IGFBP3), rs2943641 (IRS1), rs2665802 (GH1) and the exon-3 deletion of GHR. The polymorphisms have previously been robustly associated with age-related traits or are potentially functional. Meta-analysis was used to pool within-study genotypic effects of the associations between the polymorphisms and four measures of physical capability: grip strength, timed walk or get up and go, chair rises and standing balance. Results Few important associations were observed among the several tests. We found evidence that rs2665802 in GH1 was associated with inability to balance for 5 s (pooled odds ratio per minor allele = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.82–0.98, p-value = 0.01, n = 10,748), after adjusting for age and sex. We found no evidence for other associations between the polymorphisms and physical capability traits. Conclusion Our findings do not provide evidence for a substantial influence of these common polymorphisms in the GH/IGF axis on objectively measured physical capability levels in older adults.
Telomere Length and Physical Performance at Older Ages: An Individual Participant Meta-Analysis
Michael P. Gardner, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Rachel Cooper, Rebecca Hardy, Avan Aihie Sayer, Cyrus Cooper, Ian J. Deary, John Gallacher, Sarah E. Harris, Paul G. Shiels, John M. Starr, Diana Kuh, Thomas von Zglinicki, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, the Halcyon study team
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069526
Abstract: Background Telomeres are involved in cellular ageing and shorten with increasing age. If telomere length is a valuable biomarker of ageing, then telomere shortening should be associated with worse physical performance, an ageing trait, but evidence for such an association is lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine whether change in telomere length is associated with physical performance. Methods Using data from four UK adult cohorts (ages 53–80 years at baseline), we undertook cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. We analysed each study separately and then used meta-analytic methods to pool the results. Physical performance was measured using walking and chair rise speed, standing balance time and grip strength. Telomere length was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in whole blood at baseline and follow-up (time 1, time 2). Results Total sample sizes in meta-analyses ranged from 1,217 to 3,707. There was little evidence that telomere length was associated with walking speed, balance or grip strength, though weak associations were seen with chair rise speed and grip strength at baseline (p = 0.02 and 0.01 respectively). Faster chair rise speed at follow-up, was associated with a smaller decline in telomere length between time 1 and time 2 (standardised coefficient per SD increase 0.061, 95% CI 0.006, 0.115, p = 0.03) but this was consistent with chance (p = 0.08) after further adjustment. Conclusions Whereas shortening of leukocyte telomeres might be an important measure of cellular ageing, there is little evidence that it is a strong biomarker for physical performance.
Prevalence of domestic violence in Nigeria: implications for counselling
ON Aihie
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2009,
Abstract: Domestic violence is an issue of global concern. Historically, in many cultures domestic violence has been an accepted fact of life. In recent years, however, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. However, in many societies such as the Nigerian society it is still culturally acceptable. This paper discusses the reported incidence of domestic violence in Nigeria, the different forms of abuse which may occur in the home and the devastating consequences on the individuals involved and the society at large. Some of the predisposing factors of domestic violence are discussed and counselling – preventive and remedial is proffered as a panacea for the ugly phenomenon.
Effects of Peer Group Counselling and Sex on the self-concept of Secondary School Adolescents: Implications for Counselling.
ON Aihie
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2009,
Abstract: The study investigated the efficacy of peer group counselling in enhancing the self-concept of secondary school adolescents in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The influence of sex on the self-concept of these adolescents was also investigated. A pre-test, post test, control group design was employed in the study. Sixty-eight senior secondary school II students, randomly selected from three randomly selected public secondary schools (a boys’ school, a girls’ school and a coeducational school) participated in the study. A 40-item adolescent self concept scale (ASCS) adapted from Akinboye (1977) Adolescent Personal Data Inventory (APDI) was validated and used to measure the self- concept of the participants. A correlation coefficient r = 0.76 was obtained using the test-retest reliability method to establish the stability of the instrument. Three hypotheses were formulated for the study and tested at .05 level of significance. Data collected were analysed using the Students’ t-statistic and analysis of variance (ANOVA).The results of the study revealed that peer group counselling had a significant positive effect on the self-concept of the adolescents. There was no significant effect of sex on the self concept of the adolescents. Further analysis also revealed no interactive effect of treatment and sex on the self concept of the adolescents. The implications of these results for school counselling are exhaustively discussed and recommendations made.
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