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Impact of Somatic Symptoms on Identification of Depression among General Outpatients by Family Physicians in North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2015.53031
Abstract: In many places in the world, General Practitioners are only able to identify depression in a small fraction of depressed patients presenting to general outpatient department. The effect of somatic symptoms on its recognition was investigated. The study determines the identification rate of depression by general practitioners among outpatients with somatic symptoms and those without somatic symptoms. This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in Family Medicine Department, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen selected participants. Forms were used by GPs to itemize medical and psychiatric symptoms elicited as well as medical and psychiatric diagnoses made. Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) version 2.1, was used to confirm the diagnosis of depression. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) was used for severity using items 11-14 of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Those with somatic symptoms score of 1-3 were rated as having low and those with 4-10 were rated as having high. Of the 410 outpatients recruited, 402 participated in the study. Two hundred and thirteen were screened depressed (HADS). Two hundred were confirmed depressed using SCAN (49.8%). The GPs identified 31.3% of those participants diagnosed depressed without somatic symptoms compared to 15.2% of those who were diagnosed depressed with somatic symptoms. However, no significant association was found between GPs ability to identify depression in the presence or absence of somatic symptoms (p = 0.09). This study found no association between GPs ability to identify depression and presence or absence of somatic symptoms (χ2 = 2.75, p = 0.09). However, this study found that the higher the level of somatic symptoms the more unlikely it’s for GPs to identify depression. To reduce the burden of depression by early detection and treatment, continuing medical education of GPs should include skills in identification of depression.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression among General Outpatients in a Tertiary Institution in Kano, North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu, Owoidoho Udofia
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.63028
Abstract: Background: Depression is common psychiatric disorder among general outpatients. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among this population has been studied in some parts of Nigeria. However, few if any were conducted in the most populous geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Materials & Method: This study determines the prevalence of depression and associated factors among general outpatients. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. 402 of the 410 participants recruited for the study completed the study. Diagnosis of depression was confirmed using SCAN (Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) ver. 2.1. Severity of depression was rated using HDRS (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Result: Two hundred were subsequently diagnosed depressed using SCAN out of 213 who scored HADS cutoff point, given the prevalence of 49.8%. The prevalence of subtypes of depression was: Mild 26.9%, moderate 20.4% and severe 2.5%. A statistically significant association was found between depression and some socio-demographic factors which include age (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.46), gender (p = 0.001, X2 = 20.58)), marital status (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.16), educational status (p = 0.001, X2 = 10.8) and chronic medical conditions (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.77). Depressed outpatient is more likely to be over 40 yrs, female, married, having low level of education and suffering from chronic medical condition(s). However, there was no significant association between depression and employment status, family history of mental illness and substance use in this study. Conclusion: This study found high prevalence of depression among general outpatients. It is associated with age, marital status educational level and chronic medical conditions. General practitioners should lookout for depression especially among patients with the associated socio-demographic factors. Some easy-to-use screening tools like PHQ-2 should be included in the routine assessment of outpatients in Family Medicine departments. Task-sharing strategy as enshrined in mental health gap (mhGAP) document should be implemented to improve detection of depression at primary care level.
Health Services Utilization and Health Status of Insured versus Uninsured Nigerian Children with Sickle Cell Disease  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu, Abdullahi Shehu Umar
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.810100
Abstract: Introduction: Nigeria accounts for 150,000 infants born with the Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) every year. Children with SCD are affected by the deleterious effect of user fees which reduces affordability and utilization of health services. Evidences supported that institutionalized health insurance increases intensity of utilization. Methodology: The study was conducted at AKTH, Kano, and north-western, Nigeria. The study was retrospective comparative cross-sectional study. 100 patients were enrolled, 50 for each arm. Paediatric SCD clinic outpatients’ records and a specialty designed form containing the variables of interest were used. Data were analysed using Minitab 16. Proportions, percentages, tables, charts and chi squared test were used to compare the two groups. Result: The study found no association between the two groups in the likelihood of being insured based on age (χ2 = 1.478), gender (χ2 = 0.224) and dwellings (χ2 = 0.062). On health services utilization and insurance status, the study revealed that follow up clinic visits, unscheduled clinic visits and emergency room visits were more likely among the insured group compared to the uninsured group. While the health status and insurance status of the two groups over 12 months period showed a significant association with the insured more likely to have improved health status compared to uninsured (χ2 = 28.019, p = 0.0001). Similarly, health status and health services utilization were significantly associated with insurance status (χ2 = 12.191, p = 0.002). Conclusion: The insurance status of children with SCD is associated with their health services utilization and health status. However, age, gender and dwellings were not associated with insurance status of children with SCD. Therefore, when expanding insurance coverage (NHIS) among children with SCD considerations have to be given to increase health services utilization and resultant improvement in health status as these have the potential of reducing morbidity and mortality among children with SCD.
Demonstrating The Invariance Property Of Hotelling T2 Statistic
International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Numerous control chart procedures were developed and their widespread applicability as vital tools in statistical process control cannot be overemphasized. Under normal circumstances, process monitoring and control should include several interrelated process variables. The Hotelling T2 statistic being one of the most popular control chart procedures can be utilized to detect whether the observed disturbance in a given process is as a result of some perturbations in the mean vector of the quality characteristics or in their variability. One of the most notable features of Hotelling T2 statistic is its invariance property. This article demonstrates this important property using a real dataset obtained from a well-known cement production company in Nigeria.
Periorbital Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Streptococcus Viridians  [PDF]
Belinda Pustina, Naser Salihu
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.52012
Abstract: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life threatening soft tissue infection characterized by necrosis of fascia and subcutaneous tissue. If this disease is misdiagnosed and mistreated, because of the fast spreading, it can lead to death. Prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement is necessary and lifesaving in this disease. In uncomplicated cases and early stages of the disease it can be treated only with intravenous antibiotics. This study presents a 70-year-old female, farmer who approached in our clinic with edema of periorbital region and a minor trauma in her lower eyelid. First skin anthrax of eyelids was considered in differential diagnosis, because the patient was in contact with animals. Culture taken from the wound resulted positive for Streptococcus viridians α hemolytic Streptococcus: the viridians group. Treatment with Ceftriaxone + Penicillin was initiated immediately. Patient responded to intravenous antibiotics and after 2 days the edema began to regress. After 2 weeks patient was discharged from the hospital and the clinical outcome was satisfactory. Based on this case early diagnosed necrotizing fasciitis may be treated only with antibiotics.
New method to calculate determinants of nxn (n geq 3) matrix, by reducing determinants to 2nd order
A. Salihu
International Journal of Algebra , 2012,
Assessment of Compositional Heterogeneities of Core Samples from Harding (9/23b-10) and Gryphon (9/18b-17) Oil Columns
Salihu Aliyu
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study focuses on geochemical assessment of thirteen core samples from two wells (9/23b-10-Harding and 9/18b-17-Gryphon) that lie on the same block; so as to determine their compositional heterogeneities and to compare other biomarker parameters in these columns. Iatroscan TLC-FID showed that saturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltene fractions were in agreement with where thermogenic hydrocarbons had existed. All the core samples were found to be associated with each other based on diagnostic biomarker parameters including Pris/Pris+Phy vs. C27βα Dias/ C27 sterane, Ts/Ts+Tm, 22S/22S+22R homohopane and the presence of 28,30 bisnorhopane from GC-MS analyses, which were related to their organic matter source and thermal maturity. This study reveals that vertical compositional heterogeneities remain in the two columns.
Fitting the Nigeria Stock Market Return Series Using GARCH Models  [PDF]
U. Usman, H. M. Auwal, M. A. Abdulmuhyi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.77147
Abstract: This study investigated the performance of eleven competing time series GARCH models for fitting the rate of returns data, monthly observations on the index returns series of the market over the period of January 1996 to December 2015 was used. From the results obtained from the Log Likelihood (Log L), Schwarzs Bayesian Criterion (SBC) and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) values it was found that the models identified was not the same for the two periods (Training and Testing period) that is for Training period were CGARCH (1,1) and EGARCH (1,1) while for Testing period were ARCH (1) and GARCH (2,1). The two extreme classes of models are identified to represent the best and the worst groups respectively. The overall effect of this will tend to increase the volatility of the market returns. The paper therefore recommended that the Nigeria government should as a matter of urgency take appropriate positive measures through the security and exchange commission to regulate the market volatility so that the provided market index could be safely used as predictive index for measuring the performance of the firms and as a guide for investment purpose.
Unusual Eye Trauma Caused by Hula Hoop: A Case Report  [PDF]
Naser Salihu, Q?ndres? Daka, Belinda Pustina
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2017.73026
Abstract: Introduction: Eye injuries are common in sports and have the potential for major morbidity with sight threatening consequences. However, a small number of sports, such as soccer, rugby or hockey are responsible for most injuries. To our knowledge, hula hoop penetrating eye injury is not described in literature. In this report, we present a case of an unusual eye injury caused by a hula hoop. Case presentation: A 17-year-old female was admitted as an urgent penetrating right eye injury caused by a hula hoop. Penetrating wound covered 2/3 of the cornea and was associated with iris prolapses and incarceration; iridodialysis of more than half of the circumference, and traumatic cataract. Her best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was “hand motion”. The second corneal wound in parallel with the first one was noticed while she was being treated surgically under general anesthesia. Iris was repositioned, anterior chamber was formed with the viscoelastic and wounds were repaired using 10-0 nylon sutures. Iridopexy was performed using straight needle 10-0 prolene, while standard cataract surgery with phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were done. The postoperative recovery was uneventful beside elevated intraocular pressure (TOD = 24 mmHg) that was treated successfully by topical beta blockers. Six months later, her best corrected visual acuity was 0.6 stenopeic, with evident linear corneal opacification and traumatic mydriasis. Conclusions: Although seemingly impossible, hula hooping can be dangerous to the eyes if practiced in incommodious areas and close to other people.
Feeding studies of radiation sterilization ready to eat foods on sprague dawley rats: In vivo  [PDF]
Zubaidah Irawati, Yulvian Sani
Natural Science (NS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2012.42017
Abstract: Development of gamma irradiated high moisture traditional dishes derived from locally traditional récipe aimed for specific target groups as ready to eat foods for ensuring the safety, quality, and security purposes have been conducted. The formation of free radicals in the traditional foods induced by ionizing radiation is a part of toxicological studies on irradiated traditional foods was to provide local scientific data base on safe- ty issues.The different foods such as steamed gold fish, spicy curry beef and soy sauces beef were individually vacuum packed in a laminate pouch of PET 12 μm/LDPE 2 μm/AL-Foil 7 μm/LDPE 2 μm/LLDPE 50 μm (PET/Al-Foil/ LLDPE), then kept at frozen state. The frozen samples were maintained in cryogenic condition along the irradiation process by placing the samples in styrofoam boxes filled with dry ice then irradiated with gamma rays at the dose of 45 kGy. The irradiated samples were kept and stored at normal temperature prior to test. Both irradiated conventional rat’s feed at normal temperature with the dose of 4 kGy and unirradiated one as control were also made. Irradiated and unirradiated samples were sent to animal laboratory, and fed into individual female Sprague Dawley rat as member of a group. The parameters observed were body weight changed of rats, toxicological test to observe the effect free radicals formation in rat’s blood by using malon-dialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) methods, respectively, and anatomy pathology diagnosis. Different types of the foods sterilized by ionizing radiation fed ad libitum to the individual Sprague Dawley rat demonstrated that such foods did not give any adverse effect on the reduction of body weight, the toxicological impact, nor anatomy-pathology examinations of the rats.
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