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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 546 matches for " Aung Tin "
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Exploring the Basis of Sex Bias in Primary Congenital Glaucoma
Eranga N Vithana,Tin Aung
Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research , 2009,
Abstract:
Botox: The Deadly Beauty  [PDF]
Nang Khin Mya, Yeap Boon Tat, Boon Seng Yeoh, Win Tin, Tun Aung, Firdaus Hayati
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2019.71003
Abstract: Botox injection is the best known as a group of medication that uses various forms of Botulinum toxin A to temporarily paralyze muscle. It primarily reduces the appearance of some facial wrinkles and it is known as Botox Cosmetic. It is a popular treatment among people who want to achieve younger look. A 34-year-old female collapsed at beauty salon soon after receiving Botox injection. Although resuscitation was done in the emergency unit, hospital, she could not be revived and succumbed to death. This case report highlights the rare case of sudden death after Botox injection. We would like people to raise the awareness of unexpected occurrence after Botox injection while they make themselves beautify.
Angle imaging: Advances and challenges
Quek Desmond,Nongpiur Monisha,Perera Shamira,Aung Tin
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011,
Abstract: Primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) is a major form of glaucoma in large populous countries in East and South Asia. The high visual morbidity from PACG is related to the destructive nature of the asymptomatic form of the disease. Early detection of anatomically narrow angles is important and the subsequent prevention of visual loss from PACG depends on an accurate assessment of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). This review paper discusses the advantages and limitations of newer ACA imaging technologies, namely ultrasound biomicroscopy, Scheimpflug photography, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and EyeCam, highlighting the current clinical evidence comparing these devices with each other and with clinical dynamic indentation gonioscopy, the current reference standard.
Validation of a New Method for Testing Provider Clinical Quality in Rural Settings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Observed Simulated Patient
Tin Aung, Dominic Montagu, Karen Schlein, Thin Myat Khine, Willi McFarland
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030196
Abstract: Background Assessing the quality of care provided by individual health practitioners is critical to identifying possible risks to the health of the public. However, existing assessment methods can be inaccurate, expensive, or infeasible in many developing country settings, particularly in rural areas and especially for children. Following an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods for provider assessment, we developed a synthesis method combining components of direct observation, clinical vignettes, and medical mannequins which we have termed “Observed Simulated Patient” or OSP. An OSP assessment involves a trained actor playing the role of a ‘mother’, a life-size doll representing a 5-year old boy, and a trained observer. The provider being assessed was informed in advance of the role-playing, and told to conduct the diagnosis and treatment as he normally would while verbally describing the examinations. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the validity of OSP by conducting parallel scoring of medical providers in Myanmar, assessing the quality of their diagnosis and treatment of pediatric malaria, first by direct observation of true patients and second by OSP. Data were collected from 20 private independent medical practitioners in Mon and Kayin States, Myanmar between December 26, 2010 and January 12, 2011. All areas of assessment showed agreement between OSP and direct observation above 90% except for history taking related to past experience with malaria medicines. In this area, providers did not ask questions of the OSP to the same degree that they questioned real patients (agreement 82.8%). Conclusions/Significance The OSP methodology may provide a valuable option for quality assessment of providers in places, or for health conditions, where other assessment tools are unworkable.
Using and Joining a Franchised Private Sector Provider Network in Myanmar
Kathryn O'Connell, Mo Hom, Tin Aung, Marc Theuss, Dale Huntington
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028364
Abstract: Background Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. Methods and Findings Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor.
Determinants of Posterior Corneal Biometric Measurements in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population
Marcus Ang, Wesley Chong, Huiqi Huang, Tien Yin Wong, Ming-Guang He, Tin Aung, Jodhbir S. Mehta
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101483
Abstract: Purpose To describe the corneal and anterior segment determinants of posterior corneal arc length (PCAL) and posterior corneal curvature (PCC). Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) aged 40–80 years, from three major Asian ethnic groups. All underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography imaging and analysis with Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program. Our main outcome measures were determinants of PCAL and PCC using adjusted, multivariate linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders to obtain the estimated marginal means (EMM) with standard error (SE). Results The overall mean (± SD) of PCC was: 6.51±0.39 mm; and PCAL was: 12.52±0.59 mm. Malays had a relatively longer PCAL (EMM = 12.74 mm, SE = 0.04 mm) than Chinese (EMM = 12.48 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001), and Indians (EMM = 12.42 mm, SE = 0.03 mm, P<0.001). Anterior segment parameters had weak-moderate correlations with PCAL, which included: anterior chamber depth (ACD) (r = 0.55, P<0.001), PCC (r = 0.27, P<0.001), anterior corneal curvature (ACC) (r = 0.14, P<0.001) and central corneal thickness (CCT) (r = ?0.07, P = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, anterior segment parameters explained only 37.6% of the variance of PCAL, with ACD being the most important determinant (partial R2 = 0.300; P<0.001). The determinants of PCC included ACC, PCAL and CCT (explaining 72.1% variation of PCC), with ACC being the most important determinant (partial R2 = 0.683; P<0.001). Conclusion There was moderate correlation of PCAL with ACD, but anterior segment parameters accounted for only a small proportion of the variation in PCAL. The significant differences in PCAL and PCC amongst different Asian ethnic groups suggests that there is a need to consider this factor when planning for anterior segment surgeries such as endothelial keratoplasty.
A Longitudinal Analysis of the Stability of Household Money Demand  [PDF]
Jan Tin
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23046
Abstract: Past aggregate time-series studies, conducted under the assumption of a representative economic agent, frequently show that the demand for narrowly defined M1, especially non-interest-yielding demand deposit, is unstable during periods of financial innovations. Whether this is longitudinally the case among life-cycle savers is unclear. This study utilizes longitudinal data to take another look and find that volatility in the demand for non-interest-earning checking accounts in the mid and late 1990s is attributable solely to the portion held for the transactions motive. When the conventional Baumol-Tobin model is extended to include human capital and family formation variables representing the life-cycle motive, equilibrium money demand is a stable function of both economic and demographic variables.
Comparison of Anterior Segment Optical Tomography Parameters Measured Using a Semi-Automatic Software to Standard Clinical Instruments
Marcus Ang, Wesley Chong, Huiqi Huang, Wan Ting Tay, Tien Yin Wong, Ming-Guang He, Tin Aung, Jodhbir S. Mehta
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065559
Abstract: Objective To compare anterior segment parameters measured using a semi-automatic software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program, ZAP) applied to anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images, with commonly used instruments. Methods Cross-sectional study of a total of 1069 subjects (1069 eyes) from three population-based studies of adults aged 40–80 years. All subjects underwent AS-OCT imaging and ZAP software was applied to determine anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior and keratometry (K) – readings. These were compared to auto-refraction, keratometry and ocular biometry measured using an IOLMaster, ultrasound pachymeter and auto-refractor respectively. Agreements between AS-OCT (ZAP) and clinical instrument modalities were described using Bland-Altman, 95% limits of agreement (LOA). Results The mean age of our subjects was 56.9±9.5 years and 50.9% were male. The mean AS-OCT (ZAP) parameters of our study cohort were: ACD 3.29±0.35 mm, CCT 560.75±35.07 μm; K-reading 46.79±2.72 D. There was good agreement between the measurements from ZAP analysis and each instrument and no violations in the assumptions of the LOA; albeit with a systematic bias for each comparison: AS-OCT consistently measured a deeper ACD compared to IOLMaster (95% LOA ?0.24, 0.55); and a thicker CCT for the AS-OCT compared to ultrasound pachymetry (16.8±0.53 μm 95% LOA ?17.3, 50.8). AS-OCT had good agreement with auto-refractor with at least 95% of the measurements within the prediction interval (P value <0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrates that there is good agreement between the measurements from the AS-OCT (ZAP) and conventional tools. However, small systematic biases remain that suggest that these measurement tools may not be interchanged.
Impact of Measurement Error on Testing Genetic Association with Quantitative Traits
Jiemin Liao, Xiang Li, Tien-Yin Wong, Jie Jin Wang, Chiea Chuen Khor, E. Shyong Tai, Tin Aung, Yik-Ying Teo, Ching-Yu Cheng
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087044
Abstract: Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect genetic association with phenotype mean and variability was investigated analytically. The non-centrality parameter for a non-central F distribution was derived and verified using computer simulations. We obtained equivalent formulas for the cost of phenotype measurement error. Effects of differences in measurements were examined in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two grading scales for cataract and a replication study of genetic variants influencing blood pressure. The mean absolute difference between the analytic power and simulation power for comparison of phenotypic means and variances was less than 0.005, and the absolute difference did not exceed 0.02. To maintain the same power, a one standard deviation (SD) in measurement error of a standard normal distributed trait required a one-fold increase in sample size for comparison of means, and a three-fold increase in sample size for comparison of variances. GWAS results revealed almost no overlap in the significant SNPs (p<10?5) for the two cataract grading scales while replication results in genetic variants of blood pressure displayed no significant differences between averaged blood pressure measurements and single blood pressure measurements. We have developed a framework for researchers to quantify power in the presence of measurement error, which will be applicable to studies of phenotypes in which the measurement is highly variable.
Disturbances Propagation in Supersonic Boundary Layers  [PDF]
Igor Lipatov, Tu Aung Cho
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2014.412072
Abstract: Disturbances propagation processes are investigated in two-dimensional boundary layers for the case of strong viscous-inviscid interaction. The speed of upstream disturbances propagation as a function of specific heat ratio and Prandtl number is determined. Formula for speed propagation is developed on the basis of characteristics and subcharacteristics analysis corresponding to the gasdynamic wave processes and processes of convection and diffusion.
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