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OALib Journal期刊

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Effectiveness of Gully Erosion Control Measures in Edo State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Augustine Osayande, Williams W. Edobor, Sako Kato
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105018
Abstract:
The study examined the effectiveness of Gully Erosion Control Measures in Edo State, Nigeria. The objectives are to investigate erosion prone areas in Edo State; the measure(s) were adopted to control gully erosion in the area and the effectiveness of the adopted measures across the study area. The research adopted questionnaire administration and direct field observation as methodo-logical approach. It was observed that control measures put in place in the study area include mechanical methods of back filling, sand bagging, construc-tion of channels and construction of speed breakers. The biological control methods in use are trees and crop planting. These control measures as observed during the fieldwork are partly successful as pointed out by respondents in their respective zones. Therefore, there is an urgent need to address this emerging looming disaster in the State.
Relationship between Menopausal Sweating and Body Mass Index  [PDF]
Emmanuel Amabebe, Sonia I. Osayande, Janet O. Ozoene, Andrew C. Ugwu
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2014.46014
Abstract:

We sought to examine the relationship between BMI, sweat rate (SR) and sweat volume (SV) in pre-, peri- and postmenopausal women during a moderate exercise. Based on their ages and menstrual cycle history, thirty healthy women were divided into three groups: pre- (22.5 ± 0.8 yrs, n = 10), peri- (46.5 ± 1.1 yrs, n = 10) and post- (52.2 ± 0.9 yrs, n = 10). Participants underwent a 15- minute walk on a treadmill at a constant speed of 4.2 km/h at 27°C. Sweat was collected and measured with a suction apparatus around a confined area of 120 cm2 outlined on the skin of the face and neck of the participants during the exercise. SR and BMI were determined using the formulae: \"\" \"\" and   \"\" , respectively. The older women had a significantly higher BMI: pre-, peri- and post- (23.7 ± 1.3 kg/m2 vs 28.0 ± 1.2 kg/m2 vs 28.4 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). Although there was no significant

Removal of Steriod Hormones by Activated Carbon Adsorption—Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies  [PDF]
Augustine O. Ifelebuegu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.36057
Abstract: The mechanism, isotherms and kinetics of removal of two endocrine disrupting chemicals, 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) by activated carbon adsorption were investigated in an agitated non-flow batch adsorption studies. Mathematical models were used to describe the adsorption phenomenon with the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters evaluated using the adsorption equilibrium data at varying temperatures. Higher adsorption rates were achieved at acidic to neutral pH ranges, with the sorption kinetic data showing a good fit to the pseudo second order rate equation and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model for both E2 and EE2. The Gibbs free energy were –16.68 kJ/mol and –17.34 kJ/mol for E2 and EE2 respectively. The values of enthalpy for both E2 (84.50 kJ/mol) and EE2 (90 kJ/mol) indicated a chemical nature of the sorption process. Both the isotherm and thermodynamic data obtained all supported the mechanism of adsorption of E2 and EE2 to be mainly chemisorptions supported by some physical attractions.
Alternative Binders for Increased Sustainable Construction in Ghana—A Guide for Building Professionals  [PDF]
Mark Bediako, Augustine Osei Frimpong
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.412A004
Abstract:

Sustainable concepts and practices have taken a centre-stage in different fields of studies and professions. This is because human activities continue to threaten the carrying capacity of earth resources as well as life basic needs such as shelter. Ghana, a developing nation, has been characterized with a boom in construction activities. In almost every constructional work, Portland cement remains the main binding agent that is used to bind aggregates together in a monolithic unit. The overdependence of the Ghanaian construction industry on Portland cement has contributed to huge sums of foreign exchange used to import cement ingredients, high cost of buildings and annual artificial shortages of cement which leads to high cost of the product. In this work, alternative binding agentpozzolana cement, is reported with regards to the theory behind its utilization, laboratory results and practical applications. Results obtained from both the laboratory and the field works have shown that the future binder for the Ghanaian construction industry is pozzolana cement. CSIR-Building and Road Research Institute recommends it for the construction industry for use in various forms of construction such as block making, concrete and mortar works.

Sweat Rate and Electrolyte Composition in Young Women of Varying Body Mass Indices during Moderate Exercise  [PDF]
Omorede E. Osayande, Eloghosa E. Ogbonmwan, Andrew C. Ugwu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.44003
Abstract: Sweat is a hypotonic fluid excreted by sweat glands to cool the body. There are conflicting reports on whether or not body composition has an effect on thermoregulatory responses especially during exercise. This study was aimed at determining and comparing sweat rate and electrolyte composition in underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5 kg/m2 > BMI < 25 kg/m2), overweight (25kg/m2 < BMI < 30 kg/m2) and obese women (BMI > 30 kg/m2) during moderate exercise. Forty women (19 - 25 years) were used during this study after assessing their health status. They were stratified for BMI with each group having a total of ten women. It was ensured that all the women used in the study were euhydrated before commencing the research. Before sweat collection, the treadmill was calibrated according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Sweat samples were obtained with a sweat suction apparatus from a 120 cm2 circular area marked on the skin of the face and neck, after a 15 minute fast walk on a treadmill at an inclination of 15° and at a speed of 4.2 km/h at 27°C room temperature. The time at which sweating commenced in the subjects was recorded. Sweat rate (L/hour) was calculated using the formula: sweat rate (L/hr) = (pre-exercise body weight - Post-exercise body weight)/exercise duration. Each sweat sample was collected and analysed immediately. The results showed that obese women had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher sweat rate and underweight women had a significantly (P < 0.05) lower sweat rate than all the other groups. Furthermore, subjects with a high body surface area showed significantly higher sweat rates compared to subjects with lower body surface area. Sweat electrolyte composition did not change in all BMI groups. In conclusion, obese subjects are more likely to develop fluid imbalances than underweight and normal weight subjects during moderate exercise. Also, underweight women might be at a thermoregulatory disadvantage because of their reduced body fat and body surface area.
Irrigation Suitability Assessment of Effluents From West Kano Rice Irrigation Scheme, Kisumu, Kenya
AO Augustine
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2009,
Abstract: This paper assesses the suitability of West Kano Rice Irrigation Scheme effluents for recycling. Water and wastewater quality variables of ten samples from two sites were determined. The variables were Temperature, Electrolytic conductivity, Total suspended solids, pH, Calcium, Nitrates, Potassium, Sodium and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The results were used to compute the Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), and further compared with FAO irrigation water standards. The wastewater recorded statistically significant gain in Calcium, Nitrates, and TDS, depicting a heavy loss of these vital soil constituents to Lake Victoria. Nitrate levels indicated a deficit in lake water, and an excess in effluents. The excess nitrates in effluents pollute the lake, but could help as crop nutrients when recycled, while low nitrate levels in the lake water would require an addition of fertilizers to the irrigated soils. Annually, a total of 12.26 million m3 of water and 8.94 million m3 of effluents is pumped into and out of the scheme respectively. The effluent and Lake water has SAR of 35% and 18% respectively, rendering both of poor irrigation quality, though the effluents have a compensatory advantage due to its higher levels of Calcium (0.91me/l), compared with the Lake water’s 0.48me/l. The wastewater, with an irrigation suitability rating of 45%, was found more suitable for irrigation than the Lake water’s 40%. It was concluded that the irrigation wastewater was more suitable for use in the scheme than the Lake Victoria waters. It was recommended that the recycling of the irrigation wastewater should be adopted. Key Words: Irrigation; Recycling; Pollution; Waste; Water Quality; Wastewater.
Safe surgical approach to deep pontomedullary cavernoma: An iMRI-assisted resection
Adeolu Augustine
Neurology India , 2005,
Abstract:
Impact of air pollution on the environment in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Augustine C.
Journal of Environmental Science and Water Resources , 2012,
Abstract: The enforcement of air quality standards for populated urban areas has led to increasing attention to assessment of air quality management areas, where violation of air quality standards occurs, and development of control strategies to eliminate such violation of air quality standards. The Port Harcourt (Lat 4.78oN, Long 7.01oE and Elevation 468m) urban area is very densely built and has heavy motorized traffic. The increase of emissions mainly from traffic and industry are responsible for the increase in atmospheric pollution levels during the last years. The following air pollutants: carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and ozone, were measured with the WolfSense Multiple Gas Analyzer. The observed levels of CO, a criteria pollutant, exceeded the set limits of 10 and 11.4 μg/m3 by Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) and Federal Ministry of environment (FMEnvr), respectively while SO2 exceeded the set limits of 0.1 μg/m3 by DPR. The highest levels of CO and SO2 emissions was observed at mile-1 market road.
Humanism and realism in International Humanitarian Law
Augustine Brannigan
The Canadian Journal of Sociology , 2009,
Abstract:
Revisit the Two Sample t-Test with a Known Ratio of Variances  [PDF]
Yongxiu She, Augustine Wong, Xiaofeng Zhou
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2011.13018
Abstract: Inference for the difference of two independent normal means has been widely studied in staitstical literature. In this paper, we consider the case that the variances are unknown but with a known relationship between them. This situation arises frequently in practice, for example, when two instruments report averaged responses of the same object based on a different number of replicates, the ratio of the variances of the response is then known, and is the ratio of the number of replicates going into each response. A likelihood based method is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method is very accurate even when the sample sizes are small. Moreover, the proposed method can be extended to the case that the ratio of the variances is unknown.
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