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A review on the geology and petroleum potentials of the Nigerian Benue Trough and Anambra Basin is done to identify potential petroleum systems in the basins. The tectonic, stratigraphic and organic geochemical evaluations of these basins suggest the similarity with the contiguous basins of Chad and Niger Republics and Sudan, where commercial oil discovery have been made. At least two potential petroleum systems may be presented in the basins: the Lower Cretaceous petroleum system likely capable of both oil and gas generation and the Upper Cretaceous petroleum system that could be mainly gas-generating. These systems are closely correlative in temporal disposition, structures, source and reservoir rocks and perhaps generation mechanism to what obtains in the Muglad Basin of Sudan and Termit Basin of Niger and Chad Republics. They are very effective in planning future exploration campaigns in the basins.