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Las ilusiones invisibles (antes que el telón baje y la obra se quede sin aplausos): El trabajo femenino en la primera mitad del Siglo XIX
Revista de historia del derecho , 2010,
Abstract: this research work aims to explain how women's work was developed in the united provinces of the río de the plata space in the first half of the 19th century. research has been designed and carried out on review of literature of travellers, letters, chronicles, newspaper articles of the time, testimonials etc that joins the analysis of normative texts and other social and moral disciplinamientos speeches from to try to inquire as sex strongly condiciono composition of working towards a sustained segmentation of the labour supply market imposes its own rules.
Las ilusiones invisibles (antes que el telón baje y la obra se quede sin aplausos): El trabajo femenino en la primera mitad del Siglo XIX
Marcela Aspell
Revista de Historia del Derecho , 2010,
Abstract: Este trabajo de investigación pretende explicar cómo se desarrolló el trabajo femenino en el espacio de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata en la primera mitad del siglo XIX. La investigación ha sido dise ada y llevada a cabo a través del examen de la literatura de viajeros, cartas, crónicas, artículos periodísticos de la época, etc., testimonios a los que se suma el análisis de los textos normativos y los provenientes de otros discursos de disciplinamientos sociales y morales para intentar indagar como el sexo condicionó fuertemente la composición del mercado de trabajo hacia una sostenida segmentación de la oferta laboral, imponiéndole sus propias reglas. This research work aims to explain how women's work was developed in the United Provinces of the Río de the Plata space in the first half of the 19th Century. Research has been designed and carried out on review of literature of travellers, letters, chronicles, newspaper articles of the time, testimonials etc that joins the analysis of normative texts and other social and moral disciplinamientos speeches from to try to inquire as sex strongly condiciono composition of working towards a sustained segmentation of the labour supply market imposes its own rules.
Keeping in Touch with One's Self: Multisensory Mechanisms of Self-Consciousness
Jane E. Aspell,Bigna Lenggenhager,Olaf Blanke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006488
Abstract: The spatial unity between self and body can be disrupted by employing conflicting visual-somatosensory bodily input, thereby bringing neurological observations on bodily self-consciousness under scientific scrutiny. Here we designed a novel paradigm linking the study of bodily self-consciousness to the spatial representation of visuo-tactile stimuli by measuring crossmodal congruency effects (CCEs) for the full body.
Validation of a method to partition the base deficit in meningococcal sepsis: a retrospective study
Ellen O'Dell, Shane M Tibby, Andrew Durward, Jo Aspell, Ian A Murdoch
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3760
Abstract: The two abbreviated equations were applied retrospectively to blood gas and chemistry results in 374 samples from a cohort of 60 children with meningococcal septic shock (mean pH 7.31, mean base deficit -7.4 meq/L). Partitioning required the simultaneous measurement of plasma sodium, chloride, albumin and blood gas analysis.After partitioning for the effect of chloride and albumin, the residual base deficit was closely associated with unmeasured anions derived from the full Stewart–Fencl equations (r2 = 0.83, y = 1.99 – 0.87x, standard error of the estimate = 2.29 meq/L). Hypoalbuminaemia was a common finding; partitioning revealed that this produced a relatively consistent alkalinising effect on the base deficit (effect +2.9 ± 2.2 meq/L (mean ± SD)). The chloride effect was variable, producing both acidification and alkalinisation in approximately equal proportions (50% and 43%, respectively); furthermore the magnitude of this effect was substantial in some patients (SD ± 5.0 meq/L).It is now possible to partition the base deficit at the bedside with enough accuracy to permit clinical use. This provides valuable information on the aetiology of acid–base disturbance when applied to a cohort of children with meningococcal sepsis.Metabolic acidosis is a common biochemical finding in critically ill patients [1]. The prognostic significance of this entity is recognised in many mortality risk scores, in which the predicted risk increases in proportion to the degree of acidosis [2-4]. The commonest bedside tool for quantifying a metabolic acidosis is the base deficit [5]. Although the base deficit is an accurate measure of total acute acid–base derangement, it cannot delineate the various aetiologies that can contribute to an acidosis [6,7]. Broadly speaking, these include tissue acids (which dissociate into lactate and other, unmeasured anions), hyperchloraemia (a 'normal anion gap' acidosis), and weak acids (traditionally known as buffers, of which albumin is the most i
Extending the Body to Virtual Tools Using a Robotic Surgical Interface: Evidence from the Crossmodal Congruency Task
Ali Sengül, Michiel van Elk, Giulio Rognini, Jane Elizabeth Aspell, Hannes Bleuler, Olaf Blanke
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049473
Abstract: The effects of real-world tool use on body or space representations are relatively well established in cognitive neuroscience. Several studies have shown, for example, that active tool use results in a facilitated integration of multisensory information in peripersonal space, i.e. the space directly surrounding the body. However, it remains unknown to what extent similar mechanisms apply to the use of virtual-robotic tools, such as those used in the field of surgical robotics, in which a surgeon may use bimanual haptic interfaces to control a surgery robot at a remote location. This paper presents two experiments in which participants used a haptic handle, originally designed for a commercial surgery robot, to control a virtual tool. The integration of multisensory information related to the virtual-robotic tool was assessed by means of the crossmodal congruency task, in which subjects responded to tactile vibrations applied to their fingers while ignoring visual distractors superimposed on the tip of the virtual-robotic tool. Our results show that active virtual-robotic tool use changes the spatial modulation of the crossmodal congruency effects, comparable to changes in the representation of peripersonal space observed during real-world tool use. Moreover, when the virtual-robotic tools were held in a crossed position, the visual distractors interfered strongly with tactile stimuli that was connected with the hand via the tool, reflecting a remapping of peripersonal space. Such remapping was not only observed when the virtual-robotic tools were actively used (Experiment 1), but also when passively held the tools (Experiment 2). The present study extends earlier findings on the extension of peripersonal space from physical and pointing tools to virtual-robotic tools using techniques from haptics and virtual reality. We discuss our data with respect to learning and human factors in the field of surgical robotics and discuss the use of new technologies in the field of cognitive neuroscience.
A GEM Detector System for an Upgrade of the High-eta Muon Endcap Stations GE1/1 + ME1/1 in CMS
D. Abbaneo,M. Abbrescia,P. Aspell,S. Bianco,K. Hoepfner,M. Hohlmann,M. Maggi,G. De Lentdecker,A. Safonov,A. Sharma,M. Tytgat
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Based on the CMS Upgrade R&D Proposal RD10.02, we describe the motivation and main features of the CMS GEM Project for LS2 and propose the addition of a full GE1/12 detector station comprising Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers to the forward muon system of CMS. The limitations of the currently existing forward muon detector when operating at increasingly high luminosity expected after LS1 are laid out followed by a brief description of the anticipated performance improvements achievable with a GE1/1 station. The second part describes the detector system followed by an overview of electronics and associated services including a discussion of the schedule and cost of the project. Plans for a precursor demonstrator installation in LS1 are presented. This proposal is intended as a concise follow-up of the detailed document CMS-IN-2012-023. If approved, this is to be followed by a detailed Technical Design Report.
Diffraction at TOTEM
G. Antchev,P. Aspell,V. Avati,M. G. Bagliesi,V. Berardi,M. Berretti,U. Bottigli,M. Bozzo,E. Brucken,A. Buzzo,F. Cafagna,M. Calicchio,M. G. Catanesi,P. L. Catastini,R. Cecchi,M. A. Ciocci,M. Deile,E. Dimovasili,K. Eggert,V. Eremin,F. Ferro,F. Garcia,S. Giani,V. Greco,J. Heino,T. Hilden,J. Kaspar,J. Kopal,V. Kundrat,K. Kurvinen,S. Lami,G. Latino,R. Lauhakangas,E. Lippmaa,M. Lokajicek,M. Lo Vetere,F. Lucas Rodriguez,M. Macri,G. Magazzu,M. Meucci,S. Minutoli,H. Niewiadomski,E. Noschis,G. Notarnicola,E. Oliveri,F. Oljemark,R. Orava,M. Oriunno,K. Osterberg,P. Palazzi,E. Pedreschi,J. Petajajarvi,M. Quinto,E. Radermacher,E. Radicioni,F. Ravotti,G. Rella,E. Robutti,L. Ropelewski,G. Ruggiero,A. Rummel,H. Saarikko,G. Sanguinetti,A. Santroni,A. Scribano,G. Sette,W. Snoeys,F. Spinella,P. Squillacioti,A. Ster,C. Taylor,A. Trummal,N. Turini,J. Whitmore,J. Wu
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: The TOTEM experiment at the LHC measures the total proton-proton cross section with the luminosity-independent method and the elastic proton-proton cross-section over a wide |t|-range. It also performs a comprehensive study of diffraction, spanning from cross-section measurements of individual diffractive processes to the analysis of their event topologies. Hard diffraction will be studied in collaboration with CMS taking advantage of the large common rapidity coverage for charged and neutral particle detection and the large variety of trigger possibilities even at large luminosities. TOTEM will take data under all LHC beam conditions including standard high luminosity runs to maximize its physics reach. This contribution describes the main features of the TOTEM physics programme including measurements to be made in the early LHC runs. In addition, a novel scheme to extend the diffractive proton acceptance for high luminosity runs by installing proton detectors at IP3 is described.
Construction and Performance of Large-Area Triple-GEM Prototypes for Future Upgrades of the CMS Forward Muon System
M. Tytgat,A. Marinov,N. Zaganidis,Y. Ban,J. Cai,H. Teng,A. Mohapatra,T. Moulik,M. Abbrescia,A. Colaleo,G. de Robertis,F. Loddo,M. Maggi,S. Nuzzo,S. A. Tupputi,L. Benussi,S. Bianco,S. Colafranceschi,D. Piccolo,G. Raffone,G. Saviano,M. G. Bagliesi,R. Cecchi,G. Magazzu,E. Oliveri,N. Turini,T. Fruboes,D. Abbaneo,C. Armagnaud,P. Aspell,S. Bally,U. Berzano,J. Bos,K. Bunkowski,J. P. Chatelain,J. Christiansen,A. Conde Garcia,E. David,R. De Oliveira,S. Duarte Pinto,S. Ferry,F. Formenti,L. Franconi,A. Marchioro,K. Mehta,J. Merlin,M. V. Nemallapudi,H. Postema,A. Rodrigues,L. Ropelewski,A. Sharma,N. Smilkjovic,M. Villa,M. Zientek,A. Gutierrez,P. E. Karchin,K. Gnanvo,M. Hohlmann,M. J. Staib
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: At present, part of the forward RPC muon system of the CMS detector at the CERN LHC remains uninstrumented in the high-\eta region. An international collaboration is investigating the possibility of covering the 1.6 < |\eta| < 2.4 region of the muon endcaps with large-area triple-GEM detectors. Given their good spatial resolution, high rate capability, and radiation hardness, these micro-pattern gas detectors are an appealing option for simultaneously enhancing muon tracking and triggering capabilities in a future upgrade of the CMS detector. A general overview of this feasibility study will be presented. The design and construction of small (10\times10 cm2) and full-size trapezoidal (1\times0.5 m2) triple-GEM prototypes will be described. During detector assembly, different techniques for stretching the GEM foils were tested. Results from measurements with x-rays and from test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS will be shown for the small and large prototypes. Preliminary simulation studies on the expected muon reconstruction and trigger performances of this proposed upgraded muon system will be reported.
Test beam results of the GE1/1 prototype for a future upgrade of the CMS high-$η$ muon system
D. Abbaneo,M. Abbrescia,C. Armagnaud,P. Aspell,M. G. Bagliesi,Y. Ban,S. Bally,L. Benussi,U. Berzano,S. Bianco,J. Bos,K. Bunkowski,J. Cai,R. Cecchi,J. P. Chatelain,J. Christiansen,S. Colafranceschi,A. Colaleo,A. Conde Garcia,E. David,G. de Robertis,R. De Oliveira,S. Duarte Pinto,S. Ferry,F. Formenti,L. Franconi,K. Gnanvo,A. Gutierrez,M. Hohlmann,P. E. Karchin,F. Loddo,G. Magazzú,M. Maggi,A. Marchioro,A. Marinov,K. Mehta,J. Merlin,A. Mohapatra,T. Moulik,M. V. Nemallapudi,S. Nuzzo,E. Oliveri,D. Piccolo,H. Postema,G. Raffone,A. Rodrigues,L. Ropelewski,G. Saviano,A. Sharma,M. J. Staib,H. Teng,M. Tytgat,S. A. Tupputi,N. Turini,N. Smilkjovic,M. Villa,N. Zaganidis,M. Zientek
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are an interesting technology under consideration for the future upgrade of the forward region of the CMS muon system, specifically in the $1.6<| \eta |<2.4$ endcap region. With a sufficiently fine segmentation GEMs can provide precision tracking as well as fast trigger information. The main objective is to contribute to the improvement of the CMS muon trigger. The construction of large-area GEM detectors is challenging both from the technological and production aspects. In view of the CMS upgrade we have designed and built the largest full-size Triple-GEM muon detector, which is able to meet the stringent requirements given the hostile environment at the high-luminosity LHC. Measurements were performed during several test beam campaigns at the CERN SPS in 2010 and 2011. The main issues under study are efficiency, spatial resolution and timing performance with different inter-electrode gap configurations and gas mixtures. In this paper results of the performance of the prototypes at the beam tests will be discussed.
First Results from the TOTEM Experiment
G. Latino,G. Antchev,P. Aspell,I. Atanassov,V. Avati,J. Baechler,V. Berardi,M. Berretti,E. Bossini,M. Bozzo,P. Brogi,E. Brucken,A. Buzzo,F. Cafagna,M. Calicchio,M. G. Catanesi,C. Covault,T. Csorgo,M. Deile,K. Eggert,V. Eremin,R. Ferretti,F. Ferro,A. Fiergolski,F. Garcia,S. Giani,V. Greco,L. Grzanka,J. Heino,T. Hilden,M. R. Intonti,J. Kaspar,J. Kopal,V. Kundrat,K. Kurvinen,S. Lami,R. Lauhakangas,T. Leszko,E. Lippmaa,M. Lokajicek,M. Lo Vetere,F. Lucas Rodriguez,M. Macri,L. Magaletti,A. Mercadante,S. Minutoli,F. Nemes,H. Niewiadomski,E. Oliveri,F. Oljemark,R. Orava,M. Oriunno,K. Osterberg,P. Palazzi,J. Prochazka,M. Quinto,E. Radermacher,E. Radicioni,F. Ravotti,E. Robutti,L. Ropelewski,G. Ruggiero,H. Saarikko,G. Sanguinetti,A. Santroni,A. Scribano,W. Snoeys,J. Sziklai,C. Taylor,N. Turini,V. Vacek,M. Vitek,J. Welti,J. Whitmore
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The first physics results from the TOTEM experiment are here reported, concerning the measurements of the total, differential elastic, elastic and inelastic pp cross-section at the LHC energy of $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, obtained using the luminosity measurement from CMS. A preliminary measurement of the forward charged particle $\eta$ distribution is also shown.
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