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This paper investigates the effect of the Van-Ercis, Turkey, (Mw: 7.2)earthquake occurring on 23rd of October, 2011 on the transportation networks in the region. The basic incentivefor this research is to conceptualise the reliability and performance of the networks after the earthquake through the operational and topological analysis of the system. The demand and composition of the traffic along with the behaviour of the pedestrians were taken into account to evaluate the performance of the networks. In addition, the general structure of the cities and towns, as far as planning is concerned, is also paid attention and regarded as one of the main elements for the appraisal. The outcomes obtained are thought very important to be guidance for the expected Istanbul earthquake in the near future.
At the end of 17th century and during 18th century,
after devastating Russian wars the Ottomans realized that they fell behind of
the war technology of the Western militaries. In order to catch up with their
Western rivals, they decided that they had to reform their education systems.
For that they sent several students to abroad for education and started to
translate Western books.？ They
established Western style military academies of engineering. They also invited
foreign teachers in order to give education in these institutes and they
consulted them while there were preparing the curriculum. For all these, during the modernization period, the reform (nizama-1 cedid) planers modelled mainly France,
especially for teaching the applied disciplines. Since their main aim
was to grasp the technology of the West, their interest focused on the applied
part of sciences and mathematics. For that reason, they had a very keen
interest on mathematical instruments. The main objective in this article is to
examine mathematical instruments commonly used in the Ottoman empire. We
examined that by dividing the subject in two periods: The Classical period (Medieval
Islamic Echole) and the Modernization period (Western Echole). Our main focus
in this article will be the Modernization period and the instruments used in
the Ottoman military academies.
This research aims to examine teachers’ general cynicism inclinations in respect to some variables and life satisfaction level and the relevance of these inclinations with gender, relationship status and membership of a union. Research is carried out using relational inquiry module and the study group of it constituted of 395 primary school teachers who are working in Ankara during academic year of 2012-2013 and selected with the help of modeling of inordinate set. The data are collected with “The Scale of Life Satisfaction” and tested by making use of multiple regression technique. Whether the differentiation levels of teachers’ general cynicism inclinations are related with their genders, relationship status and their membership of a union are analyzed using T test. As a result, male teachers have higher degree of cynicism in cognitive dimension than female teachers. Moreover, these general cynicism inclinations in cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions do not differ greatly according to teachers’ membership of a union and relationship status. It is observed that the cognitive and affective dimensions of general cynicism inclinations have negative-sided relation with teachers’ life satisfaction rates.