Abstract:
We discuss here researches on econophysics done from India in the last two decades. The term `econophysics' was formally coined in India (Kolkata) in 1995. Since then many research papers, books, reviews, etc. have been written by scientists. Many institutions are now involved in this research field and many conferences are being organized there. In this article we give an account (of papers, books, reviews, papers in proceedings volumes etc.) of this research from India.

Abstract:
Retained intraocular organic foreign bodies, particularly wooden bodies, are frequently encountered in ophthamlologic practice. We treated a patient with a retained intraocular foreign body - a single splinter from a broom - which had remained in the eye for 25 years.

Abstract:
Major breakthrough in quantum computation has recently been achieved using quantum annealing to develop analog quantum computers instead of gate based computers. After a short introduction to quantum computation, we retrace very briefly the history of these developments and discuss the Indian researches in this connection and provide some interesting documents (in the Figs.) obtained from a chosen set of high impact papers (and also some recent news etc. blogs appearing in the Internet). This note is also designed to supplement an earlier note by Bose (Science and Culture, 79, pp. 337-378, 2013).

Abstract:
We study, using Monte Carlo dynamics, the time ($t$) dependent average magnetization per spin $m(t)$ behavior of 2-D kinetic Ising model under a binary ($\pm h_0$) stochastic field $h(t)$. The time dependence of the stochastic field is such that its average over each successive time interval $\tau$ is assured to be zero (without any fluctuation). The average magnetization $Q=(1/\tau)\int_{0}^{\tau} m(t) dt$ is considered as order parameter of the system. The phase diagram in ($h_0,\tau$) plane is obtained. Fluctuations in order parameter and their scaling properties are studied across the phase boundary. These studies indicate that the nature of the transition is Ising like (static Ising universality class) for field amplitudes $h_0$ below some threshold value $h_0^c(\tau)$ (dependent on $\tau$ values; $h_0^c\rightarrow0$ as $\tau\rightarrow\infty$ across the phase boundary) . Beyond these $h_0^c (\tau)$, the transition is no longer continuous.

Abstract:
Citations measure the importance of a publication, and may serve as a proxy for its popularity and quality of its contents. Here we study the distributions of citations to publications from individual academic institutions for a single year. The average number of citations have large variations between different institutions across the world, but the probability distributions of citations for individual institutions can be rescaled to a common form by scaling the citations by the average number of citations for that institution. We find this feature to be universal for a broad selection of institutions irrespective of the average number of citations per article. A similar analysis for citations to publications in a particular journal in a single year reveals that there are at least two distinct classes of journals across disciplines, depending on the form of the distribution function. We observe that a group of journals with high impact factor and average citations that are distinct from the majority of the journals which form a different class.

Abstract:
Social inequality is traditionally measured by the Gini-index ($g$). The $g$-index takes values from $0$ to $1$ where $g=0$ represents complete equality and $g=1$ represents complete inequality. Most of the estimates of the income or wealth data indicate the $g$ value to be widely dispersed across the countries of the world: \textit{g} values typically range from $0.30$ to $0.65$ at a particular time (year). We estimated similarly the Gini-index for the citations earned by the yearly publications of various academic institutions and the science journals. The ISI web of science data suggests remarkably strong inequality and universality ($g=0.70\pm0.07$) across all the universities and institutions of the world, while for the journals we find $g=0.65\pm0.15$ for any typical year. We define a new inequality measure, namely the $k$-index, saying that the cumulative income or citations of ($1-k$) fraction of people or papers exceed those earned by the fraction ($k$) of the people or publications respectively. We find, while the $k$-index value for income ranges from $0.60$ to $0.75$ for income distributions across the world, it has a value around $0.75\pm0.05$ for different universities and institutions across the world and around $0.77\pm0.10$ for the science journals. Apart from above indices, we also analyze the same institution and journal citation data by measuring Pietra index and median index.

Abstract:
We report a case of biphasic synovial sarcoma of the mediastinum, a very rare tumor, in a 12-year-old boy with left-sided chest pain of 3 years duration at presentation. Chest X-ray showed left-sided opacity with loss of cardiac silhouette and the mediastinum deviated to the opposite side. Computed tomography (CT) of thorax showed left-sided posterior mediastinal mass with left-sided pleural effusion and pleural thickening. CT guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the mass reported it as spindle cell variant of adenocarcinoma. Ultrasonography (USG) of the whole abdomen revealed no abnormality. The mediastinal tumor was resected by left thoracotomy and histopathological report confirmed it to be a biphasic synovial sarcoma with capsule invasion at places.

Abstract:
We study the dynamics of a few stochastic learning strategies for the 'Kolkata Paise Restaurant' problem, where N agents choose among N equally priced but differently ranked restaurants every evening such that each agent tries get to dinner in the best restaurant (each serving only one customer and the rest arriving there going without dinner that evening). We consider the learning strategies to be similar for all the agents and assume that each follow the same probabilistic or stochastic strategy dependent on the information of the past successes in the game. We show that some 'naive' strategies lead to much better utilization of the services than some relatively 'smarter' strategies. We also show that the service utilization fraction as high as 0.80 can result for a stochastic strategy, where each agent sticks to his past choice (independent of success achieved or not; with probability decreasing inversely in the past crowd size). The numerical results for utilization fraction of the services in some limiting cases are analytically examined.

Abstract:
We study an ideal-gas-like model where the particles exchange energy stochastically, through energy conserving scattering processes, which take place if and only if at least one of the two particles has energy below a certain energy threshold (interactions are initiated by such low energy particles). This model has an intriguing phase transition in the sense that there is a critical value of the energy threshold, below which the number of particles in the steady state goes to zero, and above which the average number of particles in the steady state is non-zero. This phase transition is associated with standard features like "critical slowing down" and non-trivial values of some critical exponents characterizing the variation of thermodynamic quantities near the threshold energy. The features are exhibited not only in the mean field version but also in the lattice versions.

Abstract:
We study a recently proposed kinetic exchange opinion model (Lallouache et. al., Phys. Rev E 82:056112, 2010) in the limit of a single parameter map. Although it does not include the essentially complex behavior of the multiagent version, it provides us with the insight regarding the choice of order parameter for the system as well as some of its other dynamical properties. We also study the generalized two- parameter version of the model, and provide the exact phase diagram. The universal behavior along this phase boundary in terms of the suitably defined order parameter is seen.