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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3569 matches for " Ashworth Ann "
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Impacto de treinamento baseado na Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Crian?a sobre práticas relacionadas à amamenta??o no interior do Nordeste
Coutinho, Sonia B.;Lima, Marília de C.;Ashworth, Ann;Lira, Pedro I. C.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2005, DOI: 10.2223/JPED.1422
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the impact of training based on the baby friendly hospital initiative on breastfeeding practices in maternity wards and during the first 6 months of life. methods: ninety percent of nursing auxiliaries and midwives were trained at two institutions (a and b) in palmares, pernambuco state. three hundred and thirty-four mothers were interviewed within the first 48 hours and 10 days after childbirth to evaluate breastfeeding practices at the maternities and fulfillment of steps 4 through 10 of the baby friendly hospital initiative. a subset of 166 mothers received seven home visits to evaluate breastfeeding practices throughout the first 6 months of life and to compare results with those of a cohort study conducted in the area in 1998. results: the performance of maternity b was significantly better than that of maternity a, from steps 4 to 10 and also in terms of exclusive breastfeeding and offering less water or tea to infants (p < 0.001). the comparison with a previous cohort study demonstrated an improvement in breastfeeding practices at the maternity wards and an increase of exclusive breastfeeding prevalence (from 21.2 to 70%), during the first 48 hours after delivery and throughout the first 6 months. conclusions: the training promoted partial change to some practices related to breastfeeding, having a positive effect on total and exclusive breastfeeding at the maternity wards. however, there was no significant change to these practices over the first 6 months of life, suggesting the need for effective interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding in the health sector and in the community.
Prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil
Osório,M?nica M.; Lira,Pedro I. C.; Batista-Filho,Malaquias; Ashworth,Ann;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892001000800005
Abstract: objective. to determine the prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in pernambuco, a state in northeastern brazil, so as to help guide health and nutrition policies there. methods. in 1997 a representative sample of 777 young children had their hemoglobin concentration measured. the sampling process was in three stages. first, 18 municipalities were randomly selected to represent the state and its three geographic areas (metropolitan region of recife, urban interior, and rural interior). next, using census lists, 45 census sectors were randomly chosen. finally, 777 children aged 6-59 months old were selected. blood was collected by venipuncture, and hemoglobin was measured with a portable hemoglobinometer. in the analysis, prevalence was weighted to reflect the census age distribution. results. the prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months old was 40.9% for the state as a whole. prevalence in the metropolitan region of recife was 39.6%, and it was 35.9% in the urban interior. the rural interior had the highest prevalence, 51.4%. prevalence was twice as high in children aged 6-23 months as among those 24-59 months old, 61.8% vs. 31.0% (c2 = 77.9, p < 0.001). the mean hemoglobin concentrations in the younger and older age groups were 10.4 g/dl (standard deviation (sd) = 1.5) and 11.4 g/dl (sd = 1.4), respectively. there was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in terms of prevalence. conclusions. this is the first statewide assessment of anemia prevalence among young children in brazil. given the very high prevalence of anemia among the children studied in pernambuco, especially those in the age group of 6-23 months, public health interventions are needed.
Prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil
Osório M?nica M.,Lira Pedro I. C.,Batista-Filho Malaquias,Ashworth Ann
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia in children 6-59 months old in Pernambuco, a state in northeastern Brazil, so as to help guide health and nutrition policies there. Methods. In 1997 a representative sample of 777 young children had their hemoglobin concentration measured. The sampling process was in three stages. First, 18 municipalities were randomly selected to represent the state and its three geographic areas (metropolitan region of Recife, urban interior, and rural interior). Next, using census lists, 45 census sectors were randomly chosen. Finally, 777 children aged 6-59 months old were selected. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and hemoglobin was measured with a portable hemoglobinometer. In the analysis, prevalence was weighted to reflect the census age distribution. Results. The prevalence of anemia among children 6-59 months old was 40.9% for the state as a whole. Prevalence in the metropolitan region of Recife was 39.6%, and it was 35.9% in the urban interior. The rural interior had the highest prevalence, 51.4%. Prevalence was twice as high in children aged 6-23 months as among those 24-59 months old, 61.8% vs. 31.0% (chi2 = 77.9, P < 0.001). The mean hemoglobin concentrations in the younger and older age groups were 10.4 g/dL (standard deviation (SD) = 1.5) and 11.4 g/dL (SD = 1.4), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the sexes in terms of prevalence. Conclusions. This is the first statewide assessment of anemia prevalence among young children in Brazil. Given the very high prevalence of anemia among the children studied in Pernambuco, especially those in the age group of 6-23 months, public health interventions are needed.
Pregnancy in the mature adult mouse does not alter the proportion of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells
Kara L Britt, Howard Kendrick, Joseph L Regan, Gemma Molyneux, Fiona-Ann Magnay, Alan Ashworth, Matthew J Smalley
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2245
Abstract: Mice were put through a full-term pregnancy at 9 weeks of age, when the mammary epithelium is mature. The total mammary epithelium was purified from parous 7-week post-lactation and age-matched virgin mice and analysed by flow cytometry and limiting dilution cleared fat pad transplants.There were no significant differences in the proportions of different mammary epithelial cell populations or numbers of CD24+/Low Sca-1- CD49fHigh cells (stem cell enriched basal mammary epithelial compartment). There was no significant difference in stem/progenitor cell frequency based on limiting dilution transplants between the parous and age-matched virgin epithelium.Although differences between parous and virgin mammary epithelium at later time points post lactation or following multiple pregnancies cannot be ruled out, there are no differences in stem/progenitor cell numbers between mammary epithelium isolated from parous animals which were mated at 9 weeks old and virgin animals. However, a recent report has suggested that animals that were mated at 5 weeks old have a twofold reduction in stem/progenitor cell numbers. This is of interest given the association between early, but not late, pregnancy and breast cancer risk reduction in humans. However, a mechanistic connection between stem cell numbers and breast cancer risk remains to be established.It is well established that pregnancy has a profound effect on breast cancer risk [1] (reviewed in [2]). Breast cancer risk is significantly increased immediately after parturition and this elevated risk can last for a period of 5 to 10 years in humans [3,4]. Once this elevated risk period is past, however, breast cancer risk drops in women who have had an early first full-term pregnancy to below the levels of nulliparous women of a similar age. The eventual risk decrease is more profound the earlier the age at which the first full-term pregnancy occurs [1,3,5]; a woman who has a first full-term pregnancy under the age of 20 can reduc
Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil
Monte,Cristina Maria Gomes do; Ashworth,Ann; Sá,Maria Lúcia Barreto; Diniz,Regina Lúcia Portela;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891998001200002
Abstract: childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern brazil. in response, during 1992_1994, the state government of ceará, with financial support from the world bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. during 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. effectiveness was found to be low. treatment procedures did not conform with world health organization recommendations. rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation-8.7 months-was too long. case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators.
Effectiveness of nutrition centers in Ceará state, northeastern Brazil
Monte Cristina Maria Gomes do,Ashworth Ann,Sá Maria Lúcia Barreto,Diniz Regina Lúcia Portela
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1998,
Abstract: Childhood malnutrition has been a major, long-standing health concern in northeastern Brazil. In response, during 1992_1994, the state government of Ceará, with financial support from the World Bank, established 34 new nutrition centers. During 1996 an evaluation of the centers was conducted to determine their effectiveness in treating children with malnutrition and to identify weaknesses in the system and possible solutions. Also evaluated were the adequacy of resources, admission and discharge criteria, staff training, and community satisfaction. Effectiveness was found to be low. Treatment procedures did not conform with World Health Organization recommendations. Rates of weight gain were inadequate, and the mean duration of rehabilitation-8.7 months-was too long. Case fatality in two centers was unacceptably high, 40% and more. Entry and exit criteria for rehabilitation were ill defined, resulting in some nonmalnourished children being enrolled. Few staff were adequately trained; knowledge was weak, especially about case management; and mothers were not effectively instructed. Recommendations include setting objectives for the centers, improving referral systems, standardizing entry criteria, improving case management, and establishing performance indicators.
The Development and Operational Testing of an Underwater Bait Setting System to Prevent the Mortality of Albatrosses and Petrels in Pelagic Longline Fisheries  [PDF]
Graham Robertson, Phillip Ashworth, Peter Ashworth, Ian Carlyle, Steven G. Candy
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2015.51001
Abstract: Longline fisheries for tunas and tuna-like species present an existential threat to many populations of albatrosses and petrels worldwide. To prevent this form of mortality we developed a new technology designed to deploy baited hooks underwater beyond the dive depths of seabirds (6 - 10 m for the species most commonly caught). The underwater bait setter is a stern-mounted, hydraulically-operated and computer-controlled device that catapults baited hooks underwater in a steel capsule connected to hydraulic winches by Spectra® rope. Baits are flushed from the capsule by water pressure through a spring-loaded bait release door. The chief engineering challenges in the developmental stageswere ensuring: 1) bait delivery to target depths with cycle times (time from release to recovery) that were practical for fishing operations; 2) bait retention in the capsule (no drop-outs) on the descent phase of the cycle; 3) baits, upon release at target depth, were not drawn up the water column on the capsule recovery phase (from possible hook-ups and/or suction); and 4) the retention of baits on hooks post-release from the capsule was not affected by the mechanical release underwater. Operational trials with the final version of the capsule yielded satisfactory cycle times to depths of 6 - 10 m. All baits were retained in the capsule on the descent and released as required at target depths (n = 606 deployments). Bait retention on hooks post release from the capsule and retention on hooks hand-set at the surface (the conventional method) were statistically indistinguishable. The underwater bait setter is modular in construction and can be fitted to all types of vessel sterns.
Signalling Pathways Implicated in Early Mammary Gland Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer
Beatrice Howard ,Alan Ashworth
PLOS Genetics , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020112
Abstract: Specification of mammary epithelial cell fate occurs during embryogenesis as cells aggregate to form the mammary anlage. Within the embryonic mammary bud, a population of epithelial cells exists that will subsequently proliferate to form a ductal tree filling the stromal compartment, and which can produce milk upon terminal differentiation after birth. Subsequently, these structures can be remodelled and returned to a basal state after weaning before regenerating in future pregnancies. The plasticity of the mammary epithelial cell, and its responsiveness to hormone receptors, facilitates this amazing biological feat, but aberrant signalling may also result in unintended consequences in the form of frequent malignancies. Reflecting this intimate connection, a considerable number of signalling pathways have been implicated in both mammary gland morphogenesis and carcinogenesis.
MAP kinase phosphatases
Aspasia Theodosiou, Alan Ashworth
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-reviews3009
Abstract: The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are evolutionary conserved enzymes that play an important role in orchestrating a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis [1,2]. To date, four major discrete groups of MAP kinases have been identified in mammalian cells, known as the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2), the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3), the p38 kinases (p38α, p38β, p38γ and p38δ) and ERK5/Big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1). MAP kinases are part of a three-tiered cascade consisting of a MAP kinase, a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK, MKK or MEK) and a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). Phosphorylation of the threonine and tyrosine residues in the T-loop of the MAP kinase, by its upstream kinase, results in activation. The activation of MAP kinases is not a simple switch, however, as both the duration and magnitude of activation is crucial in determining the physiological outcome in cells [3]. Thus, it seems likely that dephosphorylation of the MAP kinases is vital for their control. This is achieved by removal of phosphate groups from either the threonine residue or the tyrosine residue, or both. Both protein serine/threonine phosphatases and protein tyrosine phosphatases have been reported to dephosphorylate MAP kinases. In the past decade, however, some dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) have been recognized as key players for inactivating different MAP kinase isoforms; this class of phosphatases has been designated MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs).Although the MKPs form a structurally and functionally distinct subclass among the large number of protein phosphatases present in eukaryotic genomes, there is a great deal of confusion regarding their classification. In this article we discuss the family of 'classical' MKPs that have been definitively shown to play a role in the de-activation of MAP kinases. Where relevant, we also mention the closely related low-molecular-weight phosp
The relationship between general practice characteristics and quality of care: a national survey of quality indicators used in the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework, 2004–5
Mark Ashworth, David Armstrong
BMC Family Practice , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-7-68
Abstract: We obtained QOF data for each practice in England and linked these with census derived data (deprivation indices and proportion of patients born in a developing country). Characteristics of practices were also obtained. QOF and census data were available for 8480 practices.The median QOF score was 999.7 out of a possible maximum of 1050 points. Three characteristics were independently associated with higher QOF scores: training practices, group practices and practices in less socially deprived areas. In a regression model, these three factors explained 14.6% of the variation in QOF score. Higher list sizes per GP, turnover of registered patients, chronic disease prevalence, proportions of elderly patients or patients born in a developing country did not contribute to lower QOF scores in the final model.Socially deprived areas experience a lower quality of primary care, as judged by QOF scores. Social deprivation itself is an independent predictor of lower quality. Training and group practices are independent predictors of higher quality but these types of practices are less well represented in socially deprived areas.Prior to 2005, few measures of quality of care were routinely available in UK primary care. Routine data were only available for services attracting a separate fee such as cervical smear rates, vaccination rates, child health surveillance, minor surgery and contraceptive services while studies collecting more detailed information data had been restricted to a limited number of volunteer practices. From 2004, however, a new system of reimbursement linked to performance indicators (the 'Quality and Outcome Framework' (QOF)) made available a rich new vein of measures of quality of care [1]. The detail and breadth of descriptive information now available for general practice in Britain is unique in international terms and makes the UK a leader in international quality improvement initiatives in primary care [2].The Quality and Outcomes Framework is comprise
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