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Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark
Koti Basavaraj,Ashok Purnima
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In the present study, petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcoholic extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark (200 mg/kg body weight, p. o.) were tested for diuretic activity. The animals were grouped into five of six animals each. The first group received only 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/kg body weight) and the second group received the standard drug furosemide (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Rest of the three groups received each of extracts viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol of M. elengi bark in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight suspended in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (p. o). After oral administration, urine was collected and volume was recorded at 5 hours. The highest diuretic activity was presented by the alcoholic extract. Diuretic activity was not observed in chloroform and petroleum ether extracts. We observed a potent diuretic and electrolyte excretion activity in alcoholic extract of M. elengi bark.
In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn
Rajani G,Ashok Purnima
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: Objectives : To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods : Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA). The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol)-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL), cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL), and high-density lipid (HDL) levels. Result : Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01) for reducing power and (P < 0.001) for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05) at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01) in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01) was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01) in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion : From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity.
Antihyperhomocysteinemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Trichilia connaroides in methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemic animals
Prasanna G,Ashok Purnima
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2011,
Abstract: The current study investigates the antihyperhomocysteinemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of chloroform and methanol extracts of the leaves of Trichilia connaroides in methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Hyperhomocysteinemia was induced in albino Wistar rats by oral administration of L-Methionine (1 gm / kg) and they were treated simultaneously with chloroform and methanol extracts (100 mg / kg) from the leaves of Trichilia connaroides. Serum homocysteine, lipid profile, and products of lipid peroxidation (MDA) in the heart homogenate were recorded and treated for statistical significance. Hyperhomocysteinemic animals recorded significantly elevated serum homocysteine changes in lipid profile (P < 0.01) and Thibarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.01), compared to the vehicle control animals. Animals treated with chloroform and methanol extracts recorded significantly (P < 0.01) lower serum homocysteine, entire lipid profile, LPO (P < 0.01), except a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.01) compared to hyperhomocysteinemic animals. Thus, we conclude that chloroform and methanol extracts of Trichilia connaroides have significant antihyperhomocysteinemic and antihyperlipidemic effects on methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemic animals. Trichilia connaroides, therefore, holds promise as a cardioprotective herb.
Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of the chloroform extract of Trichilia connaroides (W. & A.) Bentilizen
Ashok Purnima,Prasanna G,Mathuram V
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The chloroform extract of dried leaves of Trichilia connaroides , was screened for analgesic and antiinflammatory activity, using chemical-, thermal- and formalin-induced inflammation in Swiss mice and Wistar rats. Chloroform extract showed significant and dose- dependent analgesic, and antiinflammatory activity.
Protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by pretreatment with methanol extract of Hemidesmus indicus var. pubescens leaf in Wistar rats
Anita Murali,Purnima Ashok,Vardarajan Madhavan
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2012,
Abstract: Summary. This study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Hemidesmus indicus var. pubescens leaf on CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity. CCL4 was administered at a dose of 0.5 ml/kg b.w. for 7days along with the methanol extract of H. indicus var. pubescens leaves at doses 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg b.w. Administration of CCL4 caused profound hepatic damage as indicated by elevation in serum levels of liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. There was depletion of serum proteins including albumin. Hepatotoxicity also caused a fall in the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Administration of methanol extract of H. indicus var. pubescens leaves (HILM) reversed these biochemical aberrations to a significant extent. Phytochemical studies on the extract proved the presence of phytoconstituents like flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, saponins, coumarins &triterpenoides, phenolic compounds & tannins. It was concluded from the study that H. indicus var. pubescens leaves possess significant hepatoprotective effects in rats which substantiates its traditional use as an antihepatopathic drug in Ayurveda. The results are preliminary, further research is needed to further evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of H. indicus var. pubescens leaf and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action. Industrial relevance. Leaves of H. indicus are used in the treatment of vomitting, wounds, leucoderma, cerebropathy, hepatopathy, nephropathy, syphilis, metropathy, leucoderma, odontalgia, cough and asthma. H. indicus var. pubescens is another taxonomic variety of the proper variety H. indicus var. indicus present in South India, where it is substituted for H. indicus var. indicus in many Ayurvedic formulations. In the traditional system of medicine there is a claim regarding the use of H. indicus leaves as a hepatoprotective agent, but there is no scientific data available to prove this. Hepatoprotective properties of the roots of H. indicus have been proved. Hence this study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the antihepatopathic potential of the leaf of this variety of H. indicus. The phytoconstituents responsible for the hepatoprotective property could be isolated and developed into suitable formulations which would be an effective option as a hepatoprotective agent, on a commercial scale. Keywords. Hemidesmus indicus var. pubescens; hepatoprotective; biochemical estimations; histopathology
Isolation, Characterization and Pharmacological Studies of A Flavonol Glucoside From Trichilia connaroides (W.&A.) Bentilizen
Dudekula Meharoon,Somasekhar Vanitad,Purnima Ashok
International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science , 2011,
Abstract: A flavonol glucoside, namely populnin (Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside ) was isolated from the leaves of Trichilia connaroides (W.&A.) Bentilizen. Investigation of the methanolic leaf extract of Trichilia connaroides for analgesic activity led to the isolation of populnin. Structural elucidation of the isolated compound was achieved by IR, 1H-NMR and LC-MS. The methanolic extract and the isolated compound were tested for analgesic activity using the Eddy’s hot plate method and the Acetic acid induced writhing test. In both tests populnin showed significant analgesic activity (P<0.001) at a dose of 50 mg/Kg b.w. The methanolic extract and populnin did not show any acute toxicity. Isolation of the flavonol glucoside and the activity observed in this study may explain in part the use of the tree in traditional medicine as a crude analgesic drug.
Screening of methanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Smilax zeylanica L for hepatoprotective effect against carbontetrachloride induced hepatic damage
Anita Murali,Purnima Ashok,Varadharajan Madhavan
Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.5455/jeim.050512.or.028
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Smilax zeylanica L on carbontetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar albino rats of either sex by administration of CCl4 0.5 ml/kg p.o. once a day for 7 days. The methanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Smilax zeylanica L were administered p.o. at doses of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg b.w for 7 days. On the 8th day, biochemical estimations were carried out to measure the serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, albumin, total proteins and total bilirubin. Histopathological examination of liver sections was also performed to study the extent of damage to hepatic parenchyma. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanol extract was carried out to find out the presence of various phytoconstituents. HPTLC fingerprint profiles of the detected phytoconstituents were also obtained. Results: Administration of CCl4 produced profound hepatic damage as evidenced by the significant increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP and total bilirubin and decrease in total proteins and albumin. The altered biochemical parameters were brought to near normal levels by the administration of methanol extract of roots and rhizomes of S.zeylanica. Conclusion: S.zeylanica roots and rhizomes possess significant hepatoprotective properties, which may due to the presence of potential hepatoprotective phytoconstituents present in them. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000): 237-244]
Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Mimusops elengi on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats
Ashok Purnima,Koti Basavaraj,Vishwanathswamy A.H.M.
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the potential of Mimusops elengi in the treatment of renal calculi. Materials and Methods: Petroleum ether, chloroform, and alcohol extracts of Mimusops elengi bark were evaluated for antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity in male albino Wistar rats. Ethylene glycol (0.75%) in drinking water was fed to all the groups (Groups II-IX) except normal control (Group I) for 28 days to induce urolithiasis for curative (CR) and preventive (PR) regimen. Groups IV, V, and VI served as CR, and groups VII, VIII, and IX as PR were treated with different extracts of M. elengi bark. Groups I, II, and III served as normal control, positive control (hyperurolithiatic), and standard (cystone 750 mg/kg), respectively. Oxalate, calcium, and phosphate were monitored in the urine and kidney. Serum BUN, creatinine, and uric acid were also recorded. In vivo antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also monitored. Results: All the extracts of M. elengi were safe orally and exhibited no gross behavioral changes in the rats. In hypercalculi animals, the oxalate, calcium, and phosphate excretion grossly increased. However, the increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly (P < 0.001) lowered by curative and preventive treatment with alcohol extract (AlE) of M. elengi. It was also observed that alcoholic extract of M. elengi produced significant (P < 0.001) decrease in MDA, and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT. These results confirm that AlE of M. elengi possess potent antiurolithiatic activity. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest potential usefulness of the AlE of M. elengi bark as an antiurolithiatic agent.
Ediacaran Discs from the Jodhpur Sandstone, Marwar Supergroup, India: A Biological Diversification or Taphonomic Interplay?  [PDF]
Purnima Srivastava
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.35113
Abstract: The noncarbonaceous Ediacaran discs of variable morphologies from the Jodhpur Sandstone Formation of the Marwar Supergroup, western Rajasthan, suggest different biologic affinities of plant and animal kingdom. These discs are commonly preserved on the bedding surfaces of siliciclastic sandstone and shale in strong positive relief and appear to possess a flexible to rigid body. Discs assignable to Aspidella, Cyclomedusa, Nimbia and Heimalora; all possibly inclining towards cnidarian affinity are being reported from the sandstone beds in Sursagar area. Variable morphologies among discs preserved in siliciclastic shale beds from the Artiya Kalan area support scyphozoan affinity (earlier named Marsonia from the same locality) and cnidarian affinity for small discs comparable with Funisia (considered being the first animals having sexual reproduction). Disc’s morphologies also suggest ephyra stage of Aurilia (a cnidarian form) or budding stages of some fungi, like Germinosphaera (multicellular benthic fungal fossils) and noncarbonaceous discs with well preserved wrinkles and folds like in Chuaria. Discs from the Jodhpur Sandstone, may at times display taphonomic interplay, but consistency and repetition in morphology support variable biological affinities representing diverse assemblage and advance ecosystem prevailing during Ediacaran period. A degree of genetic variability can be expected within any taxa, and this may be compounded by preservation factors affecting the Jodhpur Ediacaran discs. Sudden increase in size or gigantism is a common feature of Ediacaran life, which is evident in case of Jodhpur discs also. On the basis of fossil assemblage, the Jodhpur Group (the Marwar Supergroup) is regionally correlated with the Bhander Group of the Vindhyan Supergroup and Krol Group of Lesser Himalaya. Globally, the assemblage is comparable with the Long Mynd Group, Shropshire, UK, Fermuse Formation Newfoundland, South Australia, Russia and Norway.
Psychosocial Roots of Stigma of Homosexuality and Its Impact on the Lives of Sexual Minorities in India  [PDF]
Sanchita Srivastava, Purnima Singh
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38015
Abstract: The present study examined the factors related to the negative attitude of society towards sexual minorities living in India. This study also explored further the impact of such stigmatization and carrying homosexual identity on the lives of lesbian and gay individuals. To fulfill the objectives, two studies were conducted. Study 1 included 24 heterosexuals and this study scrutinized the societal perspective regarding homosexuality and attitude towards it. Results showed that homosexuality is a strong stigma in India. The results further provided factors responsible for the prevalence of negative attitudes towards homosexuality. Study 2 included 34 sexual minorities (gay & lesbian) and explored the impact of stigmatization on their lives. It also demonstrated the adverse effect of the stigma on the lives and wellbeing of the sexual minorities. The present paper provides an exhaustive theoretical and empirical underpinning of the development and existence of the stigma of homosexuality in Indian society. The results have implications for understanding and mitigating stigma in various walks of life.
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