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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402205 matches for " Ashley M. Croft "
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Evidence for Neurotoxicity from Quinoline Antimalaria Drugs: Four Personal Accounts  [PDF]
Ashley M. Croft, Anthony R. Mawson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2017.71005
Abstract: Background: The adverse effects of mefloquine and other quinoline antimalaria drugs can be severe and long-lasting. We believe that the trigger for these effects may be drug-induced hepatocellular damage that causes, firstly, a spillage of retinoids into the circulation (and hence a direct toxic effect on the brain and other target organs), and secondly, disruption of the liver-thyroid axis (and hence a pattern of specific bipolar symptoms such as is often seen in thyroid disease). Methods: We sought recently-published lay accounts of adverse effects in users of quinoline antimalaria drugs, to test these lay descriptions against our hypothesis on the likely pathogenesis of these effects. Results: We found six lay accounts that described four different experiences of adverse effects arising from the prophylactic use of quinoline antimalaria drugs. All four travellers were healthy, at the start of travel. Two of the travellers experienced severe psychoses, and one had a mild psychosis. The fourth traveller, a serving US soldier, killed 16 unarmed Afghan civilians. Analysis of these accounts shows that, based on our hypothesis, all four travellers had at least one risk factor (most commonly, concurrent alcohol use), for developing a severe reaction to their quinoline antimalaria drug. Our hypothesis therefore predicted a severe adverse drug reaction in each of these four travellers. We also identified a hitherto unrecognized
Human Parasitic Diseases - communicating new knowledge equitably and logically
Ashley M. Croft
Human Parasitic Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: Introductory Editorial by Dr Ashley M. Croft, Headquarters Fifth Division, Shrewsbury, U.K.
Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?
Ashley M Croft, Andrew Herxheimer
BMC Public Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-2-6
Abstract: We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs) may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine.We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks.Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.Mefloquine was developed by the US Army and introduced for the treatment of malaria in the late 1970s. [1] Mefloquine was first used for prophylaxis in 1985, and since then approximately 14.5 million people have been prescribed the drug for malaria prevention, versus 1.6 million for treatment. [2]In the first decade of mefloquine's use, the reported adverse effects were mainly gastrointestinal.[3] In the late 1980s it became clear that mefloquine could cause neuropsychiatric adverse effects.[4] The first randomised controlled trial of mefloquine prophylaxis in heterogeneous, non-immune Western traveller
Drugs to Prevent Malaria in Travellers: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
Ashley M. Croft, Frédérique A. Jacquerioz and Katharine L. Jones
Human Parasitic Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/HPD.S4223
Abstract: Background: Malaria infects 10,000 to 30,000 international travellers each year. It can be prevented through anti-mosquito measures and drug prophylaxis. We did a systematic review to assess the effects of currently used antimalaria drugs, given as prophylaxis to non- immune adult and child travellers to regions with chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of any antimalaria drug regimen currently used by inter- national travellers, compared against any other currently used regimen. In August 2009 we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, mRCT, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), without time restrictions. We searched reference lists, conference proceedings and one specialist journal, and contacted researchers and drug companies. We summarized the characteristics of the eligible trials, assessed their quality using standard criteria, and extracted relevant outcomes data. Where appropriate, we combined the results of different trials. Results: Eight trials (4240 participants) were included. One-quarter of trial participants were soldiers. Duration of exposure to malaria ranged from 15 days to 13 weeks. All trials reported common adverse events from antimalaria drugs. Atovaquone-proguanil users and doxycycline users had similar frequencies of reported adverse effects. Atovaquone-proguanil users had fewer reports of any adverse effect than mefloquine users (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.85), also fewer gastrointestinal adverse effects (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.7), and fewer neuropsychiatric adverse effects (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.63). Chloroquine-proguanil users had more reports of any adverse effect than users of other drugs (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.96), also more gastrointestinal adverse effects (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.6 to 0.85). We found no evidence on primaquine in travellers. Conclusions: There is limited evidence on which currently available drug is most effective in preventing malaria. Atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline are the best tolerated regimens. Doxycycline monohydrate appears exceptionally useful due to its good safety profile, low cost and protective efficacy against many travel-related infections, besides malaria. Mefloquine is associated with adverse neuropsy- chiatric outcomes. Chloroquine-proguanil is associated with adverse gastrointestinal outcomes. There is no evidence to support the use of primaquine as prophylaxis in travellers.
Location Privacy: Privacy, Efficiency and Recourse through a Prohibitive Contract
N. J. Croft,M. S. Olivier
Transactions on Data Privacy , 2011,
Abstract: In certain circumstances an individual may not be in control of their private location information and thus vulnerable to a privacy violation. In this paper, we ensure location privacy through the establishment of a prohibitive contract in a situation where an individual wishes to minimize privacy loss and a service provider aims to maximize prots. Given the possible strategies we show that a privacy equilibrium can be found. This equilibrium, expressed in the form of a prohibitive contract, is established with the intention of preventing a possible privacy violation. Should within the constraints of the prohibitive contract, a violation occur, a suitable and efcient outcome for both parties presents itself. We further investigate how such violations may affect a user-centric location privacy system. Emphasis is placed on the economic and contract aspects of the parties' relationship, rather than specic technical detail of location privacy. Utilizing the utilitarian paradigm approach, we evaluate the overall efciency of the prohibitive contracts which we show postulates convergence towards an overall balanced system.
Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory for cold molecular collisions with a strongly anisotropic potential energy surface
James F. E. Croft,Jeremy M. Hutson
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.032710
Abstract: We show that multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) can be applied successfully as an efficient computational method for cold molecular collisions in Li+NH, which has a deep and strongly anisotropic interaction potential. In this strongly coupled system, closed-channel poles restrict the range over which the MQDT Y matrix can be interpolated. We present an improved procedure to transform the MQDT reference functions so that the poles are removed from the energy range of interest. Effects due to very long-range spin-dipolar couplings are outside the scope of MQDT, but can be added perturbatively. The new procedure makes it possible to calculate the elastic and inelastic cross sections needed to evaluate the feasibility of sympathetic cooling of NH by Li using coupled-channel calculations at only 5 combinations of energy and field.
Role of IL-33 in inflammation and disease
Ashley M Miller
Journal of Inflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-8-22
Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-33 (also known as IL-1F11) was originally identified as DVS27, a gene up-regulated in canine cerebral vasospasm [1], and as "nuclear factor from high endothelial venules" (NF-HEV) [2]. However, in 2005 analysis of computational structural databases revealed that this protein had close amino acid homology to IL-18, and a β-sheet trefoil fold structure characteristic of IL-1 family members [3]. IL-33 binds to a ST2L (also known as T1, IL-1RL1, DER4), which is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL1R superfamily. IL-33/ST2L then forms a complex with the ubiquitously expressed IL-1R accessory protein (IL-1RAcP) [4-6]. Signaling is induced through the cytoplasmic Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of IL-1RAcP. This leads to recruitment of the adaptor protein MyD88 and activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB via TRAF6, IRAK-1/4 and MAP kinases and the production of inflammatory mediators (Figure 1) [3]. The ST2 gene can also encode at least 2 other isoforms in addition to ST2L by alternative splicing, including a secreted soluble ST2 (sST2) form which can serve as a decoy receptor for IL-33 [7], and an ST2V variant form present mainly in the gut of humans [8]. Signaling through ST2L also appears to be negatively regulated by the molecule single Ig IL-1R-related molecule (SIGIRR) and IL-33 induced immune responses were enhanced in SIGIRR-/- mice [9].IL-33 appears to be a cytokine with dual function, acting both as a traditional cytokine through activation of the ST2L receptor complex and as an intracellular nuclear factor with transcriptional regulatory properties [10]. The amino terminus of the IL-33 molecule contains a nuclear localization signal and a homeodomain (helix-turn-helix-like motif) that can bind to heterochromatin in the nucleus and has similar structure to the Drosophila transcription factor engrailed [2,11]. In a similar manner to which a motif found in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA (latency-associated nuclear antigen
The stability of the fractional quantum Hall effect in topological insulators
Ashley M. DaSilva
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.ssc.2011.07.001
Abstract: With the recent observation of graphene-like Landau levels at the surface of topological insulators, the possibility of fractional quantum Hall effect, which is a fundamental signature of strong correlations, has become of interest. Some experiments have reported intra-Landau level structure that is suggestive of fractional quantum Hall effect. This paper discusses the feasibility of fractional quantum Hall effect from a theoretical perspective, and argues that while this effect should occur, ideally, in the $n=0$ and $|n|=1$ Landau levels, it is ruled out in higher $|n|$ Landau levels. Unlike graphene, the fractional quantum Hall effect in topological insulators is predicted to show an interesting asymmetry between $n=1$ and $n=-1$ Landau levels due to spin-orbit coupling.
Analysis of Impervious Surface Area, and the Impacts on Soil-Based Agriculture and the Hydrologic Cycle: A Case Study in the Agricultural Land Reserve in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada  [PDF]
Ashley Rose, Julie E. Wilson, Les M. Lavkulich
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.88062
Abstract: The province of British Columbia, Canada, has established an Agricultural Land Reserve (ALR) to protect the most suitable soil landscapes for agriculture. Increases in population and urbanization have resulted in development challenges on ALR lands. The Metro Vancouver area is the most productive agricultural area in British Columbia as well as the most rapidly growing urban region. The increase in impervious areas has decreased the amount of arable land for soil-based agriculture and altered the hydrological cycle. Analysis using a combination of aerial imagery and GIS found that impervious areas comprise about 10 percent of the ALR within Metro Vancouver. Farm residences and greenhouses have the largest effect on reducing the soil surface for water infiltration. This decrease in area has negatively influenced the ecosystem heath of the region, as well as, decreasing the amount of agricultural land for soil based agriculture and both surface and groundwater dynamics.
Calibration of Nondestructive Assay Instruments: An Application of Linear Regression and Propagation of Variance  [PDF]
Stephen Croft, Tom Burr
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.55075
Abstract:

Several nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to quantify special nuclear materials use calibration curves that are linear in the predictor, either directly or as an intermediate step. The linear response model is also often used to illustrate the fundamentals of calibration, and is the usual detector behavior assumed when evaluating detection limits. It is therefore important for the NDA community to have a common understanding of how to implement a linear calibration according to the common method of least squares and how to assess uncertainty in inferred nuclear quantities during the prediction stage following calibration. Therefore, this paper illustrates regression, residual diagnostics, effect of estimation errors in estimated variances used for weighted least squares, and variance propagation in a form suitable for implementation. Before the calibration can be used, a transformation of axes is required; this step, along with variance propagation is not currently explained in available NDA standard guidelines. The role of systematic and random uncertainty is illustrated and expands on that given previously for the chosen practical NDA example. A listing of open-source software is provided in the Appendix.

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