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Editorial
Ashfaq Hasan
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract:
Editorial
Ashfaq Hasan
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract:
Editorial
Ashfaq Hasan
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract:
Editorial
Ashfaq Hasan,B. Jagannadh
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting with orthopnea in a patient with COPD and obstructive sleep apnea
Ashfaq Hasan,Amrit B. Saxena,Syed Mahmood Ahmed,T.L.N. Swamy
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND) is a relentlessly progressive neurological disorder causing peripheral muscular weakness and resultant respiratory failure. In this article, we report a case of ALS with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with orthopnea as initial symptoms.
Role of mycorrhiza to reduce heavy metal stress  [PDF]
Syeda Asma Bano, Darima Ashfaq
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.512A003
Abstract:

Plants have a system of antioxidant enzymes, which helps to alleviate the effects of various types of stresses. Heavy metals like Cadmium and lead are tolerable for plants to certain extent. The antioxidant enzymes do not function properly at higher concentrations of Cadmium, lead and some other heavy metals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes are reduced due to reactive oxygen species produced as a result of heavy metal stress. The catalase activity was directly inhibited by O2- (Kono and Fridovich, 1982). These ROS are O2-, H2O2, and -OH which can react with many other biomolecules. Several metallic ions are produced by radical displacement reactions. These metallic ions inhibit the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Hence, enzymic antioxidant defense system of plants is affected and adversely inhibits plant growth and productivity. Mycorrhizal fungi are important in phytostabilization of toxic heavy metals. Plants having mycorrhizal association accumulate metallic pollutants by storing these heavy metals in Vesicles as well as in fungal hyphae in their roots, hence these metallic pollutants are immobilized and do not inhibit the growth and uptake of phosphorus and some other micronutrients. Mycorrhizal fungi also release various organic acids which increase the solubilisation of insoluble phosphate compounds present in soil. The unavailable forms of phosphorus are converted into available forms as a result of organic acids produced by fungi. AM fungi release glomalins that are certain metal sorble glycoproteins which increase the immobilization of toxic metals. Another protein is metallothionine released by certain AM fungi, which also reduces the heavy metal toxicity in soil. Mycorrhizal fungi also induce resistance in plants against pathogens, drought and salinity stress. Investigation on heavy metal stress resistant genes in mycorrhizal plants can be very helpful for phytoremediation. This review focuses on the use of AM fungi for phytoremediation.

ASSESSMENT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF PATIENTS
AYESHA ASHFAQ
The Professional Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To determine whether or not doctors assess the socio-economicstatus of their patients in order to customize treatment and improve compliance. Design: A cross-sectional Setting:Jinnah Hospital and Shalimar Hospital Lahore. Period: From March to June 2005 Methods & Material: Ninety-threepatients were included from each of the two randomly selected tertiary care hospitals (one public, one private) ofLahore. Doctor-patient encounters were observed. Results: No assessment was made for 134/186(72%) patients.51/186(27.4%) received an inadequate assessment. Only 01/186(0.5 %) patient received a thorough assessment ofhis socioeconomic status. Doctors in the private hospital made better effort to assess the socioeconomic backgroundof the patient (albeit inadequately), compared to those in the public hospital (p: < 0.0001). Conclusion: Doctors shouldbe regular and meticulous in patients’ socioeconomic status assessment.
Tackling the Failure of Microfinance Efforts Through Amalgamating Microfinance with Charity: Two Viable Alternatives in the Context of Pakistan
Ashfaq Khan
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The drastic shift in the microfinance paradigm during the early 1990s, when the donorcommunity adopted a new approach as to the sustainability of microfinance institutions,changed the overall scenario of the paradigm. Instead of providing subsidized financialservices to microfinance institutions (MFIs) for their life time, the donors started emphasizingself-sustainability on the part of MFIs through making them adopt principles ofcommercialism. The shift in the donors’ approach, although relieved of their burden to aconsiderable extent, gave rise to an increase in the interest rates on loans for the poor. Manyscholars considered it as a drift from the primary mission. This conceptual paper presents twoviable alternatives which, through amalgamating microfinance and charity principles, canpotentially help the sector achieve the dual objective of boosting the supply of subsidizedfinancial resources to the sector and ensuring the poor’s access to an affordable source offinancial help.
Dictating Change, Shouting Success: Where is Accountability?
Ashfaq Khan
Australasian Accounting Business and Finance Journal , 2011,
Abstract: A great body of literature suggests that the poor were better off before the microfinance sector’s paradigm shift of the mid-1990s. The sector’s ‘dependent’ constituents’ focus changed in an effort to cope with the changes dictated by its ‘controlling’ constituents. This paper’s key finding is that the not-for-profit sector, where beneficiaries’ interests are at stake, and the corporate sector, where owners and management are separate, should undergo an externally dictated change only after passing through a regulating agency’s scrupulous check, lest the change harm the sector’s beneficiaries. The paper attempts to create awareness among policy-makers of the need to be thoughtful of the ultimate beneficiaries in similar cases of externally dictated organisational change.
Technical efficiency analysis of hybrid maize production using translog model case study in District Chiniot, Punjab (Pakistan)  [PDF]
Syed Asif Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Ashfaq
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.410072
Abstract:

In Pakistan, maize accounts for 5.93 percent of the total cropped area and 4.82 percent of the value of agricultural production. Given high cost of the production, there is a belief that it is difficult to boost profitability without enhancing use of pricey inputs. Maximum likelihood estimates of stochastic frontier model were estimated and determinants of technical efficiency were calculated. Using Cobb Douglas model estimated maximum likelihood coefficients for all inputs were significant and showed signs according to expectations. The evaluation with the different models gives different technical efficiencies, which shows that technical efficiency estimations are extremely sensitive to the functional form specified.

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