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Association of Depression and Life Satisfaction with Low Resilience among Married Women of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Nida Zahid, Iqbal Azam, Nargis Asad, Rozina Karmaliani, Omrana Pasha
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.54029
Abstract: Background: The concept of resilience is very crucial in promoting positive psychological well-being. However, this construct was never looked among married women of Karachi, Pakistan. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and the associated risk factors of resilience in Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey, using the Wagnild Resilience Scale (RS) to assess resilience, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) for measuring depression and Trait Wellbeing Inventory for determining Life Satisfaction. Systematic sampling was employed to enroll 636 participants of aged 20 to 40 years living in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Prevalence ratio was computed with their 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 636 married women participated in the study. The average age of females with low resilience was 29.8 (5.7) whereas the mean age of females with high resilience was 31.1 (5.7). Around 90% of all the participants could speak in Urdu. The prevalence of low resilience among women was 21.9%. Moreover, the prevalence of depression among low resilience group was 43.9% whereas the mean life satisfaction score among females with low resilience was lower than females with high resilience. The females who had low resilience were younger and had no formal/informal education as compared to their counterparts. After controlling for other variables, the prevalence of low resilience was 1.78 times more among depressed females as compared to the non-depressed with a 95% CI: (1.27-2.51). Moreover with every one unit increase in the life satisfaction scores, the prevalence of low resilience decreased 9%. Furthermore, age and informal schooling were also found to be significantly associated with resilience. Conclusion: Depression and life satisfaction are the potential modifiable risk factors for resilience and hence we can improve resilience through interventions that may focus on reducing depression and improving satisfaction towards life. Our study also recommends that health care professionals should be educated about these modifiable risk factors to bring about a change in the society and reduce the mental health illness by promoting constructive adaptation.
Factors Affecting Depression among Married Women Living in Urban Squatter Settlements of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Salima Farooq, Yasmin Parpio, Rozina Karmaliani, Nargis Asad, Iqbal Azam, Omrana Pasha
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2016.61008
Abstract: Background: Depression is one of the growing public health concerns among women worldwide. This is one of the most under-recognized and under-treated mental illnesses worldwide. Women of developing countries are inexplicably affecting with depression. Purpose: The purpose of study is to assess the prevalence and associative factors of depression among women of aged 20 to 40 years living in urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. The identification of all the potential determinants will potentially help in formulating preventive strategies in order to decline the prevalence of depression among women and improve the wellbeing of women. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional survey was employed among women living in Reta Plot and Kala Board communities of Karachi, Pakistan. Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to measure depression. Systematic sampling was used to recruit 636 married women. Cox proportional hazard was run to compute prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence interval. Results: Our study estimated 33.3% of depression among study participants. The current study showed that age, possession of own vehicle, years of schooling and recent deaths in family were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion: This research was a bold step to address the issue of increasing rate of depression among Pakistani population. Our study results can convince policy makers to extend mental health support to women by improving accessibility of services. Recommendation: Our study recommends that the women of our society should be encouraged for attaining education. This study also recommends that at primary health care setting, every health professional should be trained to screen the depression. Moreover, the results of our study can also encourage policy makers to expand mental health support services for women.
Renal Tumors in Young Adults A Single-Center Experience From a Developing Country
Rehan Mohsin,Altaf Hashmi,Gohar Sultan,Asad Shehzad
Urology Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: To determine the pattern and outcome of renal tumors in young adults in a large surgical series in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 133 young adults (age: ≥ 16 to ≤ 40 years) with 136 renal tumors, who underwent surgical treatment for suspected renal cancer from 1994 till 2010. The clinical and pathological parameters were determined and their impact on final outcome was analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.3 ± 6.2 years. Of 136, 121 (88.9%) renal tumors were malignant and 15 (11%) were benign. Among malignancies, 76 (62.7%) patients had stage I or II tumors, 22 (18.1%) stage III, and 23 (19%) stage IV at surgery. The overall cancer-specific survival for malignant tumors at 1, 5, and 10 years was 97%, 83%, and 83%, whereas the cancer-free survival (CFS) was 80%, 63%, and 37%, respectively. Patients with age ≤ 35 years had 1 and 5-year CFS of 83% and 71%, respectively, as compared with 76% and 49% for patients > 35 years (P = .02; odds ratio = 2.3; P = .03). Regarding tumor size, 1 and 5-year CFS for tumors ≤ 10 cm was 93% and 75%, while tumors > 10 cm showed CFS of 56% and 41%, respectively (P = .0001; odds ratio = 4.2; P = .0001). For stage I tumors, CFS at 1 and 5 years was 98% and 84%; for stage II, 82% and 63%; and for stage III, 62% and 50%, respectively. One-year survival for stage IV was 48% only (P = .0001). Conclusion: A wide heterogeneity of renal tumors is seen in young adults with delayed presentation.
Announcement of the principal findings and value addition in Computer Science research papers
Wasima Shehzad
Ibérica , 2010,
Abstract: This paper presents a rhetorical analysis of the Introductions of Computer Science (CS) research articles from a specialized corpus with reference to “Announcement of Principal Findings” and “Statement of Value” steps within the framework of the “Create A Research Space” (CARS) model (Swales, 2004), conducted through corpus-based techniques. The results show that discoursal practices in CS are result-oriented and in various ways highlight the writers’ contribution. The results are explicitly described with embedded “value” statements in the elaborate explanations of the nature of the present research. The common linguistic indicators used for this purpose are “contribution”, “efficient” and “novel”. The discussion concludes with the suggestion to amend the CARS model for CS writers.
Move two: establishing a niche
Wasima Shehzad
Ibérica , 2008,
Abstract: The significant purpose of the author in the Introduction of a research article is to convince the reader about the importance of the work to be presented. To achieve this end, a convincing “niche” needs to be built by evaluating, rejecting or indicating gaps in previous related work. The purpose of “establishing a niche” is to emphasize the current research project presented by the author. The present paper investigates how Computer scientists use this obligatory step of “Create a Research Space” (CARS) model (Swales & Feak, 1994 & 2004) to highlight their own research work. This paper not only compares the results with other similar studies but also presents an in-depth analysis of various types of gap statements used in Computer Science research article Introductions. The issue of cyclicity of this step and the linguistic indicators used for the establishment of “niche” (the gap statements) are both discussed.
Shehzad Shams
The Professional Medical Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Tuberculous meningitis is a major health problem and in Pakistan is associated commonly withhydrocephalus which is treated by ventriculo-peritoneal shunting. Many factors are associated withoutcome of these patients. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PERIOD: From Jan 1998 to Jan 2000.SETTING: Paediatric department of Allied Hospital Faisalabad. MATERIAL & METHODS:Sixty two patients who were diagnosed as cases of TBM and their CT scans revealed hydrocephalus. Allwere subjected to ventriculo-peritoneal shunting procedure. Different factors related to outcome at 3 monthswere studied. RESULTS: Different variables were studied but the stage of the disease was the mostimportant factor effecting the outcome. Outcome in stage II patients was good 33.3%, Moderate disability41.6%. In stage III, Good 9.7%, Moderate disability 29.2%. In stage IV, Good 0%, Moderate disability11.1%. The results showed that the most important factor effecting the outcome was the stage of the disease.CONCLUSIONS: An early diagnosis of hydrocephalus in early stage of the disease and referral forventriculo-peritoneal shunt is desired to improve the prognosis.
Consumer’s Purchase Intentions towards Automobiles in Pakistan  [PDF]
Abeera Amir, Muzaffar Asad
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2018.61014
The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the factors which influence the consumer’s purchase intentions towards automobiles in Pakistan. After reviewing the literature, the most significant independent variables (price, product, after sale service, brand product quality and brand loyalty) were integrated together into a research framework and then the hypotheses were tested. The unit of analysis was the individual automobiles consumers in Lahore, Pakistan selected as random respondents. The sample size was 250. Simple regression was used to analyze the results. The findings depicted that the three independent variables—price, product and brand product quality—have a positive significant relationship with the consumer’s purchase intentions towards automobiles while the other two variables i.e. after sale service and brand loyalty showed insignificant results. The managers in the automobile industry as well as the policy makers will find this study helpful, when they will be making strategies (example marketing related) and also while developing auto policy.
Assessing Acceptability of Short Message Service Based Interventions towards Becoming Future Voluntary Blood Donors
Sana Saleem,Anum Wasim,Sidra Sabih,Ayisha Farooq Khan,Madiha Hasan Rizvi,Umaima Ayesha Jillani,Mujtaba Jamal Syed,Madiha Mumtaz,Yasmeen Mumtaz,Abdul Moid Shehzad,Om Dawani,Saima Khan,Sheheryar Munir,Nava Asad,Abdul Nafey Kazi
Journal of Blood Transfusion , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/567697
Abstract: All blood bank services, especially those of developing countries, face a major shortfall of blood donations due to lack of voluntary blood donors. Our study aims to evaluate the acceptability of Short Message Service based interventions towards becoming voluntary blood donors among medical university students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods. A total of 350 medical students were approached in medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan, using a nonprobability convenient sampling technique. Data collectors administered a self-made questionnaire to each participant using an interview based format. All data was recorded and analyzed on SPSS 16. Results. 350 participants, having a mean age of 21.47 ± 1.36, were included in our study with 30.6% (107/350) being males and 69.4% (243/350) being females. 93.4% (327/350) of participants agreed that donating blood was healthy, but only 26% had donated blood in the past with 79.1% donating voluntarily. 65.7% (230/350) of the participants agreed to take part in Short Message Service based behavioral interventions to become voluntary blood donors with 69.7% (244/350) also agreeing that Short Message Service reminders will promote them to donate blood more often. Conclusion. With university students willing to become voluntary blood donors, Pakistani blood banks can carry out Short Message Service based interventions to encourage them to donate blood. 1. Introduction The continuous major challenge faced by all blood services worldwide is the huge demand-supply gap between blood donors and patients [1]. Although blood donation forms an integral component of medical services, only 92 million blood donations were made to an estimated 234 million major operations performed in 2013 [2]. Developing countries, like Pakistan, experience an even greater crisis, owing to the high incidence of transfusion-requiring medical conditions like high risk obstetrics, thalassemia, trauma, and malaria. In Pakistan, only 28 people donate blood for every population of 10000 [3]. Replacement donors and paying for donations contribute significantly to Pakistani blood banks that in turn promotes high risk collection of seropositive infectious blood as opposed to the low risk blood products obtained from voluntary donors [4]. In 2012, an estimated 70% donations were replacement or paid for donations with 50% cases receiving unscreened blood transfusions [5]. Recruitment of low risk voluntary blood donors is a primary solution of replenishing this shortfall in blood banks [6]. University student populations, medical university students in
The Professional Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: Background: Reduced septal uptake of myocardial perfusion agents is frequently observed in patientshaving left bundle branch block (LBBB) without any significant coronary artery disease. Objective: Toevaluate the incremental value of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MRS) on apparentregional perfusion and wall thickening, in order to standardize the protocol for reporting myocardialperfusion scintigraphy in LBBB patients with the aim of avoiding false positive reports. Material &Methods: Resting gated SPECT MPS was performed in 8 frames mode with intravenous injection of 740MBq 99mTc-MIBI in 10 normal controls and 19 LBBB patients having low probability of coronary arterydisease (CAD). Visual analyses and quantitative analyses on non gated (NG), end diastolic (ED), endsystolic (ES), peak septal and peak lateral wall count frame images was carried out which include calculationof septal to lateral wall ratio (SLR), end systolic myocardial thickening index (MTI) and peak MTI. Results:Septal hypo perfusion was noted in 15 patients in NG and 19 in ES images, whereas only 1 patient showedabnormalities on ED images. Fourteen patients demonstrated worsening of apparent perfusion on ES imagesthan that of NG. In NG study of LBBB group SLR (0.69 ± 0.08) was lower than that of control (0.89 ± 0.07)group. Further worsening was observed in ES (0.61 ± 0.06), which markedly improved in ED (0.87 ± 0.07)to reach near that of control (0.89 ± 0.08). End systolic MTI for septum was markedly lower in LBBB group(22.821 ± 11.78) than that of control (65.02 ± 21.45). Lateral wall in LBBB group demonstrated values(68.14 ± 15.8) similar to those of control (71.61 ± 22.06). Within the LBBB group septum demonstratedmuch lower values than that of lateral wall. In all control subjects, frames showing peak lateral and peak septal wall counts were the same as their respective ES frame. Similar trend was noted for lateral wall ofLBBB patients. However time bin showing peak septal wall counts were different from ES frame in allLBBB subjects. In controls, same value of SLR (0.86 ± 0.04) was found for ES frame and at peakmyocardial thickening. In LBBB patients, peak SLR ratio (0.73 ± 0.09) is significantly higher than thatobserved in ES frame (0.61 ± 0.06), relatively higher than that in NG study, but still lower than that observedin controls. Comparison of end systolic MTI with peak MTI shows same value for lateral wall (71.61 ±22.06) and IVS (65.02 + 21.45) of control group and lateral wall (68.14 ± 15.8) of LBB group respectively.However significantly higher value of septal
The Secret Dream World of ángela Carballino in Unamuno's San Manuel Bueno, mártir
Ali Shehzad Zaidi
Interlitteraria , 2013, DOI: 10.12697/il.2013.18.1.16
Abstract: Critics have long held that Miguel de Unamuno’s San Manuel Bueno, mártir concerns a village priest, Manuel Bueno, who suppresses his private doubts in order to preserve the happiness and simple faith of his parishioners. Notwithstanding critical tradition, a close look at the novella reveals that Manuel belongs to the secret dream world of its first-person narrator, ángela Carballino. This paper peers into the hidden world of a protagonist who becomes a mother through her dreams.
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