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U(2) invariant squeezing properties of pair coherent states
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00663-1
Abstract: The U(2) invariant approach is delineated for the pair coherent states to explore their squeezing properties. This approach is useful for a complete analysis of the squeezing properties of these two-mode states. We use the maximally compact subgroup U(2) of Sp(4,R) to mix the modes, thus allowing us to search over all possible quadratures for squeezing. The variance matrix for the pair coherent states turns out to be analytically diagonalisable, giving us a handle over its least eigenvalue, through which we are able to pin down the squeezing properties of these states. In order to explicitly demonstrate the role played by U(2) transformations, we connect our results to the previous analysis of squeezing for the pair coherent states.
Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Computational Algorithms
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1007/s12043-001-0130-9
Abstract: The existence of entangled quantum states gives extra power to quantum computers over their classical counterparts. Quantum entanglement shows up qualitatively at the level of two qubits. We show that if no entanglement is envolved then whatever one can do with qubits can also be done with classical optical systems. We demonstrate that the one- and the two-bit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm does not require entanglement and can be mapped onto a classical optical scheme. It is only for three and more input bits that the DJ algorithm requires the implementation of entangling transformations and in these cases it is impossible to implement this algorithm classically.
Structure, Composition and Diversity of Horticulture Trees and Agricultural Crops Productivity under Traditional Agri-Horticulture System in Mid Hill Situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India  [PDF]
Arvind Bijalwan
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.34057
Abstract: Productivity of agricultural crops under traditional agri-hortculture system alongwith structure, composition and diversity of fruit trees and shrub species in mid hill situation of Garhwal Himalaya, India between 1000 to 2000 m asl during summer and winter seasons on northern and southern aspect were studied. The tree density, composition and diversity in the system varied depending upon aspect, landholding and requirements of the farmers. A total of 12 fruit tree species were recorded in agri-horticulture system; of which 4 trees were common in northern and southern aspect and 6 trees were only noticed in northern aspect while 2 in the southern. The apple tree (Malus domestica) was recorded to be dominant fruit tree species with highest IVI values on both northern and southern aspect with prime preference by the farmers for high additional economic return in agri-horticulture system. Among the shrubs, the 6 shrub species were recorded on the northern aspect whereas there number was 16 on southern aspect. The agricultural crop diversity was higher on the northern aspect in summer and winter season. The average annual productivity of grain under agri-horticulture system recorded 1106 kg·ha–1·year–1 on northern aspect and 1122 kg·ha–1·year–1 on southern with a reduction of 34.56% and 38.29% compared to the sole agriculture crops. The aspect and season also played significantly role in grain, straw and biological productivity of agricultural crops present in agri-horticulture and sole cropping systems. In general there was reduction in yield of agricultural crops under fruit trees but this reduction is supplemented by fruit production which support and sustain the rural community of this hilly region.
Simulation & Performance Evaluation of QoS Routing Protocol for Adhoc Networks Using Directional Communication  [PDF]
Arvind Kumar, Rajeev Tripathi
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.512087
Abstract: A wireless ad-hoc network is a self-organized wireless network without fixed or backbone infrastructure. All nodes have routing capability and use peer-to-peer packet transmission or forward packets to other node using multi hop communication. Now days mobile ad-hoc networks are being used for different applications and traffics, so it require quality of service (QoS) support in routing protocol. In this paper, a modified QoS routing protocol using directional antenna has been proposed. High and normal priority can be assigned based on type of traffic. All the nodes in the path used by high priority flow are reserved as high priority flow for that flow and normal priority flow will avoid the paths used by high priority flows. If no disjoint paths are available, there may be two possibilities: Normal priority flows are blocked and other is, normal priority flows are allow using the coupled path with high priority flow. Blocking the normal priority flow, QoS routing protocol improves the performance of high priority flow. This concept may be use in emergency communication. Simulation results show that by assigning the priorities to flows, performance of high priority flows are improved and it will further improved by blocking the normal priority flow.
Energy Saving in WSN with Directed Connectivity  [PDF]
Neha Deshpande, Arvind Shaligram
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2013.56015

Wireless Sensor Networks have been implemented in many indoor applications such as offices, hospitals, laboratories for monitoring the parameters such as temperature, humidity etc. Most of the applications have used omnidirectional antennas. In randomly deployed ad hoc wireless sensor networks, this may be useful to achieve coverage and connectivity with unknown neighbors. In case of deterministic deployments such as in case of food grain storages where locations of the sensor nodes are mostly fixed, the main challenges are unstable and vacillating conditions in the godowns during loading and unloading of sacs as well as unpredictable changes in climate. Most of the commercial motes generally use omnidirectional antennas. Energy overheads increase considerably with omnidirectional antennas. Directivity increases energy saving but may be at the cost of redundancy. This paper is mainly focused on the energy advantage in ad hoc wireless sensor networks deployed in large food grain storages and energy overheads required for obtaining certain level of redundancy using directional antennas. Finally, we conclude that energy advantage can be achieved even if we overcome redundancy to certain extent.

Acute toxicity of Cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid to estuarine clam Katelysia opima (Gmelin) and its effect on oxygen consumption  [PDF]
Madhura Mukadam, Arvind Kulkarni
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.34016
Abstract: The impact of acute exposure of Cypermethrin on the rate of oxygen consumption of the estuarine clam, Katelysia opima was studied. After 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 84 and 96 h of exposure to acute concentration, the average oxygen consumption in LC0 group was 0.215, 0.305, 0364, 0.355, 0.362, 0.376, 0.313, 0.305, 0.297 (ml/L/hr/gm) and in LC50 group it was 0.210, 0.299, 0.356, 0.247, 0.217, 0.244, 0.203, 0.186, 0.174 (ml/L/hr/gm). It was observed that the rate of oxygen consumption fluctuated with an increase in the exposure period. The decrease was maximum in LC50 group as compared to LC0 group.
Review to EDM by Using Water and Powder-Mixed Dielectric Fluid  [PDF]
Sharanjit Singh, Arvind Bhardwaj
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.102014
Abstract: Basically Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-established non-conventional machining process, used for manufacturing geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive material parts that are extremely difficult-to-cut by other conventional machining processes. Erosion pulse discharge occurs in a small gap between the work piece and the electrode. This removes the unwanted material from the parent metal through melting and vaporizing in presence of dielectric fluid. Performance measures are different for different materials, process parameters as well as for dielectric fluids. Presence of metal partials in dielectric fluid diverts its properties, which reduces the insulating strength of the dielectric fluid and increases the spark gap between the tool and work piece. As a result, the process becomes more stable and metal removal rate (MRR) and surface finish increases. The EDM process is mainly used for making dies, moulds, parts of aerospace, automotive industry and surgical components etc. This paper reviews the research trends in EDM process by using water and powder mixed dielectric as dielectric fluid.
Telomeres and Telomerase: Molecular Views and Perspectives  [PDF]
Kumar Arvind, Tony Grace
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2018.75008
Abstract: Telomere, the nucleoprotein structure at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes is indispensable for maintaining the genome stability. Telomeric DNA loss is apparent with each cell division, which marks an endpoint to the indefinite replication of the cell by causing replicative senescence that may lead to the programmed cell death. The loss of telomere is normal in cell division and as such after 20 - 40 divisions, telomere becomes too short to facilitate the capping function. Telomere uncapping or chromosomal free end causes a potential threat to the genomic stability and thus leads to the accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities that have been known to play a role in aging and cancer. Telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein complex, and its accessory proteins are required to maintain the telomere sequence. Telomerase plays a key role in maintaining the length of telomere by adding G-rich repeat sequences. Its activity has been found to be quite high in the gametes, stem cells and most importantly tumor cells. Almost 85% of tumor cells compensate for telomere loss aided by telomerase-associated protein complex and shelter in complex or telosome. However, 5% - 10% of the cells undergo telomerase-independent mechanism. This review presents the molecular view of the telomere and telomerase along with its associated complex structures. It also discusses its contrasting role in causing cellular senescence and promoting tumorigenesis.
Efficient Extraction of Agarose from Red Algae Using Ionic Liquids  [PDF]
Tushar J. Trivedi, Arvind Kumar
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2014.44025
Abstract: We explored the possibility of using ionic liquids (ILs) as medium for efficient extraction of agarose via dissolution of red algae under varying conditions of heating or microwave irradiation. As compared to conventional methods, a very high extraction yield of good quality agarose (as high as 39 wt%) could be achieved depending upon the nature of used IL and applied experimental conditions. Purity of extracted agarose was confirmed from various spectral and analytical techniques, such as 1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, circular dichroism (CD), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The physicochemical properties, such as gelling or melting temperature, viscosity and gel strength of extracted agarose hydrogels have been measured and compared with the agarose obtained from similar source reported in the literature. ILs were recovered after the extraction of agarose and were reused for further extraction experiments. % Recycling and extraction ability of recycled ILs in different cycles have been measured. The developed extraction process of utilizing ILs as medium is easy, simple and highly efficient as compared to the conventional methods of agarose extraction from algae.
Mixed Saddle Point and Its Equivalence with an Efficient Solution under Generalized (V, p)-Invexity  [PDF]
Arvind Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Garg
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.69145
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to define the concept of mixed saddle point for a vector-valued Lagrangian of the non-smooth multiobjective vector-valued constrained optimization problem and establish the equivalence of the mixed saddle point and an efficient solution under generalized (V, p)-invexity assumptions.
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