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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14 matches for " Arvanitaki "
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Exploring the String Axiverse with Precision Black Hole Physics
Asimina Arvanitaki,Sergei Dubovsky
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.044026
Abstract: It has recently been suggested that the presence of a plenitude of light axions, an Axiverse, is evidence for the extra dimensions of string theory. We discuss the observational consequences of these axions on astrophysical black holes through the Penrose superradiance process. When an axion Compton wavelength is comparable to the size of a black hole, the axion binds to the black hole "nucleus" forming a gravitational atom in the sky. The occupation number of superradiant atomic levels, fed by the energy and angular momentum of the black hole, grows exponentially. The black hole spins down and an axion Bose-Einstein condensate cloud forms around it. When the attractive axion self-interactions become stronger than the gravitational binding energy, the axion cloud collapses, a phenomenon known in condensed matter physics as "Bosenova". The existence of axions is first diagnosed by gaps in the mass vs spin plot of astrophysical black holes. For young black holes the allowed values of spin are quantized, giving rise to "Regge trajectories" inside the gap region. The axion cloud can also be observed directly either through precision mapping of the near horizon geometry or through gravitational waves coming from the Bosenova explosion, as well as axion transitions and annihilations in the gravitational atom. Our estimates suggest that these signals are detectable in upcoming experiments, such as Advanced LIGO, AGIS, and LISA. Current black hole spin measurements imply an upper bound on the QCD axion decay constant of 2 x 10^17 GeV, while Advanced LIGO can detect signals from a QCD axion cloud with a decay constant as low as the GUT scale. We finally discuss the possibility of observing the gamma-rays associated with the Bosenova explosion and, perhaps, the radio waves from axion-to-photon conversion for the QCD axion.
Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically-levitated sensors
Asimina Arvanitaki,Andrew A. Geraci
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.071105
Abstract: We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or micro-discs. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.
Searching for dilaton dark matter with atomic clocks
Asimina Arvanitaki,Junwu Huang,Ken Van Tilburg
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.015015
Abstract: We propose an experiment to search for ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilatonic interactions. Such couplings can arise for the dilaton as well as for moduli and axion-like particles in the presence of CP violation. Ultralight dilaton DM acts as a background field that can cause tiny but coherent oscillations in Standard Model parameters such as the fine structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio. These minute variations can be detected through precise frequency comparisons of atomic clocks. Our experiment extends current searches for drifts in fundamental constants to the well-motivated high-frequency regime. Our proposed setups can probe scalars lighter than 10^-15 eV with discovery potential of dilatonic couplings as weak as 10^-11 times the strength of gravity, improving current equivalence principle bounds by up to 8 orders of magnitude. We point out potential 10^4 sensitivity enhancements with future optical and nuclear clocks, as well as possible signatures in gravitational wave detectors. Finally, we discuss cosmological constraints and astrophysical hints of ultralight scalar DM, and show they are complimentary to and compatible with the parameter range accessible to our proposed laboratory experiments.
Discovering the QCD Axion with Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Asimina Arvanitaki,Masha Baryakhtar,Xinlu Huang
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.084011
Abstract: Advanced LIGO may be the first experiment to detect gravitational waves. Through superradiance of stellar black holes, it may also be the first experiment to discover the QCD axion with decay constant above the GUT scale. When an axion's Compton wavelength is comparable to the size of a black hole, the axion binds to the black hole, forming a "gravitational atom." Through the superradiance process, the number of axions occupying the bound levels grows exponentially, extracting energy and angular momentum from the black hole. Axions transitioning between levels of the gravitational atom and axions annihilating to gravitons can produce observable gravitational wave signals. The signals are long-lasting, monochromatic, and can be distinguished from ordinary astrophysical sources. We estimate up to O(1) transition events at aLIGO for an axion between 10^-11 and 10^-10 eV and up to 10^4 annihilation events for an axion between 10^-13 and 10^-11 eV. In the event of a null search, aLIGO can constrain the axion mass for a range of rapidly spinning black hole formation rates. Axion annihilations are also promising for much lighter masses at future lower-frequency gravitational wave observatories; the rates have large uncertainties, dominated by supermassive black hole spin distributions. Our projections for aLIGO are robust against perturbations from the black hole environment and account for our updated exclusion on the QCD axion of 6*10^-13 eV < ma < 2*10^-11 eV suggested by stellar black hole spin measurements.
The Sound of Dark Matter: Searching for Light Scalars with Resonant-Mass Detectors
Asimina Arvanitaki,Savas Dimopoulos,Ken Van Tilburg
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The fine structure constant and the electron mass in string theory are determined by the values of scalar fields called moduli. If the dark matter takes on the form of such a light modulus, it oscillates with a frequency equal to its mass and an amplitude determined by the local dark matter density. This translates into an oscillation of the size of a solid that can be observed by resonant-mass antennae. Existing and proposed resonant-mass detectors can probe dark matter moduli with frequencies between 1 kHz and 1 GHz, with much better sensitivity than force measurements.
Psychometric properties of the Greek Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire
Nick Kontodimopoulos, Eleni Arvanitaki, Vassilis H Aletras, Dimitris Niakas
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-17
Abstract: A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172) completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a) and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups) were assessed.The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92). Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument.The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece.Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the prevalence of the disease has reached epidemic proportions, with the global number of people with diabetes projected to rise from approximately 170 million in 2000 to approximately 370 million in 2030 [1]. About 90-95% of all cases are type 2, also known as adult-onset diabetes [2]. Diabetes is further burdened with an increased risk of complications, which have important effects on patients' quality of life as well as socio-economic implications [3]. Overall, diabetes affects various domains of functioning and well-being and people with diabetes generally repo
Stopping Gluinos
A. Arvanitaki,S. Dimopoulos,A. Pierce,S. Rajendran,J. Wacker
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.76.055007
Abstract: Long lived gluinos are the trademark of split supersymmetry. They form R-hadrons that, when charged, efficiently lose energy in matter via ionisation. Independent of R-spectroscopy and initial hadronization, a fraction of R-hadrons become charged while traversing a detector. This results in a large number of stopped gluinos at present and future detectors. For a 300 GeV gluino, $10^6$ will stop each year in LHC detectors, while several hundred stop in detectors during Run II at the Tevatron. The subsequent decays of stopped gluinos produce distinctive depositions of energy in calorimeters with no activity in either the tracker or the muon chamber. The gluino lifetime can be determined by looking for events where both gluinos stop and subsequently decay.
Mini-Split
Asimina Arvanitaki,Nathaniel Craig,Savas Dimopoulos,Giovanni Villadoro
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP02(2013)126
Abstract: The lack of evidence for new physics beyond the standard model at the LHC points to a paucity of new particles near the weak scale. This suggests that the weak scale is tuned and that supersymmetry, if present at all, is realized at higher energies. The measured Higgs mass constrains the scalar sparticles to be below 10^5 TeV, while gauge coupling unification favors Higgsinos below 100 TeV. Nevertheless, in many models gaugino masses are suppressed and remain within reach of the LHC. Tuning the weak scale and the renormalization group evolution of the scalar masses constrain Split model building. Due to the small gaugino masses, either the squarks or the up-higgs often run tachyonic; in the latter case, successful electroweak breaking requires heavy higgsinos near the scalar sparticles. We discuss the consequences of tuning the weak scale and the phenomenology of several models of Split supersymmetry including anomaly mediation, U(1)_(B-L) mediation, and Split gauge mediation.
Astrophysical Probes of Unification
Arvanitaki, Asimina;Dimopoulos, Savas;Dubovsky, Sergei;Graham, Peter W.;Harnik, Roni;Rajendran, Surjeet
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.105022
Abstract: Traditional ideas for testing unification involve searching for the decay of the proton and its branching modes. We point out that several astrophysical experiments are now reaching sensitivities that allow them to explore supersymmetric unified theories. In these theories the electroweak-mass DM particle can decay, just like the proton, through dimension six operators with lifetime ~ 10^26 sec. Interestingly, this timescale is now being investigated in several experiments including ATIC, PAMELA, HESS, and Fermi. Positive evidence for such decays may be opening our first direct window to physics at the supersymmetric unification scale of M_GUT ~ 10^16 GeV, as well as the TeV scale. Moreover, in the same supersymmetric unified theories, dimension five operators can lead a weak-scale superparticle to decay with a lifetime of ~ 100 sec. Such decays are recorded by a change in the primordial light element abundances and may well explain the present discord between the measured Li abundances and standard big bang nucleosynthesis, opening another window to unification. These theories make concrete predictions for the spectrum and signatures at the LHC as well as Fermi.
Testing Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry
Arvanitaki, Asimina;Dimopoulos, Savas;Geraci, Andrew A.;Hogan, Jason;Kasevich, Mark
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.120407
Abstract: We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10^{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10^{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.
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