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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24370 matches for " Arun Kumar Mishra "
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Levels, Trends and Inter-Regional Variations in Transfusion Transmissible Infection Positivity among Blood Donors in India: Evidence from India’s National HIV Program  [PDF]
Saravanamaurthy P. Sakthivel, Pinnamaneni Yujwal Raj, Shanoo Mishra, Arun Kumar Sharma
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53025
Abstract: In India, transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) are monitored for trends at the blood bank level, but limited efforts have been made to analyze data from a large number of blood banks and present it at the national, regional and state levels. The Computerized Management Information System (CMIS), National AIDS Control Organization’s (NACO) online data capturing system, systematically collects information on TTIs in a monthly aggregated format from blood banks across the country. This information is being captured in NACO’s annual reports, but a systematic scientific analysis and publication of the same have not been attempted so far. Hence, the objective of this study is to analyze and report TTIs among blood donors in India at three different levels—national, regional and state—from 497 consistent blood banks reporting through CMIS during 2008-2012. National level analysis shows an increasing trend in voluntary blood donation from 9.28 lakh to 19.02 lakh, and a decreasing trend in TTIs, with female donors constituting only 6% of the entire pool of donors. Of the five TTIs studied, in 2012 Hepatitis-B-surface Antigen (HBsAg) positivity was highest (0.9%), followed by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) (0.45%), syphilis (0.23%), HIV (0.17%) and malaria (0.03%). Regional analysis indicated that voluntary donation was high in the Eastern and Western regions, with 11% of female donors in Eastern India in 2012. All the TTIs showed a declining trend, except HCV, which showed a rising trend in the Eastern and Southern regions. The level of positivity for all the five TTIs was higher than the national average in the Eastern region. Among the TTIs, HIV positivity among voluntary donors was below the national average, while in Mizoram both HBsAg and HCV of more than 1% seropositivity and VDRL of 1.7% in Arunachal Pradesh had been reported. Malaria has the lowest national positivity, with Nagaland reporting a high positivity of 0.4%. Although the national and regional trends in TTI positivity are declining, regional level variations in TTIs, especially in hepatitis, suggest the importance of advocating for pre-donation counseling and educating donors on self-exclusion.
String Model Resonator High Accuracy Measurement For F B G Sensors
Anubhuti Khare,Manish Saxena,Arun Kumar Mishra
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely accepted as strain and vibration monitoring devices for advanced composite mechanical structures.This paper describes a string resonator that is used for the interrogation system of a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) strain sensor. For several years now, civil engineers have been collaborating with researchers in the field of optoelectronics, in efforts to develop fiber optic sensing and monitoring systems for civil engineering structures. Optoelectronics are the core of the telecommunications industry and are an important part of sensing in the aerospace industry. In the last ten to twenty years, optoelectronic technology has emerged in the fields of civil engineering, manufacturing and biomedicine, etc., in products such as fiber optic sensors.The strain on the fiber piece is calculated from the measured frequency based on that the natural frequency of a string is a function of the applied absolute strain. Existing research considered a fiber as a string, but a fiber is not a string in the strict sense due to its bending stiffness, thus the fiber should be modeled as a beam accompanied with an axial force. In the vibration modeling, the relationship between the strain and the natural frequency is derived, and then the resonance condition is described in terms of both the phase and the mode shape for sustaining resonant motion. Several experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed model of the fiber.
Discrete wavelet transform based signal stegnography & encryption
Mr. Arun Kumar,Miss Sarita Chokhandre,Dr. Anup Mishra
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Stegnography and signal encryption are the most important tools that provide data and information security by hiding the signal under cover signal. It is usually done through mathematical manipulation of the data with on in comprehensible format for unauthorized user. Some time it is essential to transmit Real Time signal through internet with appreciable confidentiality for preventing unauthorized information access, this is prime consideration for growing use of signal stenography. Proposed algorithm based on Discrete WaveletTransform technique for signal stegnography and one stage of encryption; both methods are used for secure communication Cryptograph which deals with data or signal encryption at sender side and decryption at receiver side [3] with help of key or password, stegnography used for secure data transmission.
Genetic transformation studies and scale up of hairy root culture of Glycyrrhiza glabra in bioreactor
Mehrotra,Shakti; Kumar Kukreja,Arun; Singh Khanuja,Suman Preet; Nath Mishra,Bhartendu;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: the study was undertaken to induce hairy roots in glycyrrhiza glabra in leaf explants and to optimize the nutritional requirement for its growth kinetics at shake flask and bioreactor level. pathogenecity of agrobacterium depends upon transformation ability of strain and age, type, and physiological state of explants. agrobacterium rhizogenes strain k599 was used to infect leaf explants of g. glabra. explants of different age groups were obtained from 2 to 5 weeks old in vitro grown cultures. bacterial strain k599 could induce hairy roots in 3 and 4 weeks old leaf explants cultured on b5, ms, nb and wp basal semi-solid medium. leaf explants of 2 and 5 weeks old culture were not responsive to bacterial infection in terms of hairy root induction. maximum transformation frequency (tf) of tested bacterial strain was 47% obtained in 3 weeks old explants after 25 days of incubation on ms basal semi solid medium. nb and b5 both media composition showed 20% of transformation frequency after 28 and 38 days respectively. wp medium did not support induction of roots in cultured leaf explants infected with a. rhizogenes strain k599even after 50 days of incubation. further, when all the four media combinations were tested for root growth it was found that though wp was not responsive for hairy root induction, yet all four basal media supported hairy root growth and a gradual increase in fresh weight biomass was observed with an increase in culture duration. however amongst all, the nb medium composition supported best growth of hairy roots followed by ms, b5 and wp media. about 20 times increase in root biomass on fresh weight basis was recorded after 45days of culture in nb medium. initial inoculum of roots (0.18 g. f.wt./ flask) containing 50 ml of liquid culture medium produced 3.59 g (f. wt.) biomass. a fast growing hairy root clone g6 was grown in a 5 l capacity mechanically agitated bioreactor provided with a nylon mesh septum. after 30 days of sterile run, 310 g of root b
Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells
Vaibhav Rastogi,Pragya Yadav,Shiv Sankar Bhattacharya,Arun Kumar Mishra,Navneet Verma,Anurag Verma,Jayanta Kumar Pandit
Journal of Drug Delivery , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/670815
Abstract: During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. 1. Introduction After the discovery of the third allotropic form of carbon fullerene in 1991, Sumio Iijima identified a new structural form of this allotrope, the cylindrical fullerene and named them as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) [1]. CNTs are graphene sheets rolled into a seamless cylinder that can be open ended or capped, having a high aspect ratio with diameters as small as 1nm and a length of several micrometers [2]. Depending on the number of sheets rolled into concentric cylinders, there are two broad categories of CNTs, namely, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) (Figure 1). SWCNTs are made up of single graphene layer wrapped into a hexagonal close-packed cylindrical structure whose diameter varies from 0.4 to 3.0?nm and length ranges from 20 to 1000?nm and are held together by Vander Waals forces, which makes them easily twistable and more pliable [3]. SWCNTs are produced by the electric arc [4], laser ablation [5], chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [6], and gas-phase catalytic processes (HiPco or high-pressure CO conversion) [7]. Figure 1: Carbon nanotube: (a) single walled carbon nanotube and (b) multiwalled carbon nanotube. MWCNTs consist of several coaxial cylinders, each made of a single graphene sheet surrounding a hollow core. The outer diameter of MWCNTs ranges from 2 to 100?nm, while the inner diameter is in the range of 1–3?nm, and their length is 1 to several m [8]. Electric arc [9] and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [10, 11] are the main techniques for their production. Owing to the sp2 hybridization in MWCNTs, a delocalized electron cloud
Urban Violence in Northern Border of Mexico: A Study from Nuevo León State  [PDF]
Arun kumar Acharya
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2011.14023
Abstract: Urban violence has reached record level in many nations, and having devastating impact on people’s health and livelihood as well as economic prospects. Today, for millions of people around the world, violence, or the fear of violence, is a daily reality. In Mexico since the year 2006 the northern border states are become more violent due to fight against the drug trafficking. In this study, we have taken Nuevo León state as area of study, and we have seen from the result; that urban violence in Nuevo León has increased in an unprecedented manner during last few years. Much of this urban violence is a consequence of rural-to-urban migration and exponential urbanization. We have also seen in the study that urban violence is a multi-factorial phenomena and main reason behind this is inequality among city dwellers. This is a potential source of frustration which increasing risk of urban violence, especially if certain groups are underprivileged and suffers from social exclusion.
A Sustainable Energy Efficiency Solution in Power Plant by Implementation of Perform Achieve and Trade (PAT) Mechanism  [PDF]
Rajesh Kumar, Arun Agarwala
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.24020
Abstract:

An enhanced energy efficiency scheme, “Perform, Achieve and Trade” (PAT) is explored in relation to the existing carbon market in India, particularly the Clean Development Mechanism, Renewable Energy Certification and possible Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. The PAT scheme incentivises energy-intensive large industries and facilities for Enhance Energy Efficiency, through technology upgrade and improvement in process. The PAT scheme currently identified 478 designated consumers from eight energy intensive industrial sectors namely, thermal power plants, iron and steel, cement, textiles, chlor-alkali, aluminum, fertilisers and pulp & paper. The threshold limit in thermal power plant sector to become a PAT designated consumer is 30,000 tonne of oil equivalent annual energy consumption. In the first PAT cycle, run through 2012 to 2015, total 144 designated consumers from various states have been identified with individual target. Thermal power plant sector has been categorized on the basis of their fuel input into three subsectors i.e. gas, oil and coal based plants. This paper reviews the state of the art in PAT mechanism design and operational features for implementation on thermal power plant sector. The possibility of implementing an Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in India is explored from political and institutional perspectives.

Menopausal transition and postmenopausal health problems: a review on its bio-cultural perspectives  [PDF]
Shailendra Kumar Mishra
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.34041
Abstract: This paper documents health problems faced by menopausal and postmenopausal women. These women constitute a sizable proportion of India's population though there exist no health care programmes to cater their specific health needs and health vulnerabilities arose due to menopausal transition. Researchers have generally tried to determine age at menopause and a few have explored psychosomatic problems experienced by them. Abrupt changes in hormone levels among women generally bring out several physical infirmities which have hardly been the interest of research. Studies on menopausal and postmenopausal health problems and their bio-cultural correlates are warranted. Efforts should be made to understand the process of aging among women in relation to menopausal transition. Cross-cultural differences in coping mechanisms to minimise the health problems arose due to menopausal transition are important to study. This review argues provision of culturally appropriate health care programs to facilitate easier menopausal transition and to ensure healthy postmenopausal life for women.
An Introduction to Numerical Methods for the Solutions of Partial Differential Equations  [PDF]
Manoj Kumar, Garima Mishra
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.211186
Abstract: Partial differential equations arise in formulations of problems involving functions of several variables such as the propagation of sound or heat, electrostatics, electrodynamics, fluid flow, and elasticity, etc. The present paper deals with a general introduction and classification of partial differential equations and the numerical methods available in the literature for the solution of partial differential equations.
Application of Merged Precipitation Estimation Technique to Study Intense Rainfall Events over India and Associated Oceanic Region  [PDF]
Anoop Kumar Mishra
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2012.22023
Abstract: In this paper, an effort has been made to study heavy rainfall events during cyclonic storms and active monsoon cycle over Indian land and associated oceanic regions from recently developed merged rainfall technique using rain gauge and multi-satellite observations from Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Meteosat of Eumetsat. Four recent cyclonic events namely Gonu, Bijli, Aila and Laila were qualitatively analyzed using rainfall from this technique. This technique is validated against another merged rainfall product TRMM-3B42V6 and rain gauge observations during heavy rainfall events of the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010. Results presented in this study show that the heavy rainfall events are efficiently monitored by this technique.
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