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A variedade léxica da língua espanhola em dicionários bilíngues espanhol-português para aprendizes brasileiros = The lexical variety of Spanish language in Spanish-Portuguese bilingual dictionaries for Brazilian learners
Jéssica Aparecida Artico,Odair Luiz Nadin
Acta Scientiarum : Language and Culture , 2011,
Abstract: Em decorrência de fatores como a globaliza o e a demografia dos países hispanicos, a língua espanhola tem exercido, sobretudo desde a última década do século XX, grande influência mundial, principalmente em países como o Brasil, geograficamente próximo a países hispano-americanos. Nesse contexto, faz-se necessário pensar a quest o davaria o linguística da língua espanhola, dentre a qual destacamos a varia o léxica. Como toda língua, o espanhol detém um vasto e riquíssimo léxico com diversas variedades relacionadas com as características de cada regi o: história, cultura, costumes etc. Essadiversidade influencia no desenvolvimento, na amplia o, na renova o da língua, bem como no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Assim, propusemo-nos a analisar o registro de variedades léxicas da língua espanhola em alguns dicionários bilíngues espanhol-português para aprendizes brasileiros. Para isso, selecionamos alguns exemplos de variedade léxica presentes em um corpus organizado com textos de diferentes gêneros textuais e verificamos se esses itens lexicais est o registrados nos dicionários escolhidos. Como o corpus estáorganizado a partir de textos presentes em manuais didáticos usados no Brasil, nosso objetivo é verificar se o vocabulário com o qual o aprendiz brasileiro entra em contato em situa o formal de ensino está registrado nos dicionários analisados. Due to factors such as globalization and the demography of Hispanic countries, the Spanish language has influenced worldwide, especiallysince the last decade of the 20th century, mainly countries which are geographically close to Spanish American countries, such as Brazil. In this context, it is necessary to think of the linguistic variation of the Spanish language, in which we emphasize the lexical variation. As any language, Spanish has a colossal and wealthy lexicon with different varieties related to the characteristics from each region: history, culture, customs etc. This diversity influences the development, the amplification and the renewal of a language, as well as the teaching-learning process. Thus, we proposed to analyze the lexicon varieties of Spanish language entries in some Spanish-Portuguese bilingual dictionaries for Brazilian learners. In order to achieve this goal, we selected some examples of lexical variety in a corpus organized with texts of different textual genres and we verified if these lexical items are registered in the dictionaries chosen. As the corpus is organized from texts present in didactic manuals used in Brazil, our goal is to verify if the vocabulary which the Brazilia
Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots: observations on three cases and review of the literature Raices lumbares conjuntas: a proposito de tres casos y revision de la literatura
M. Artico,S. Carloia,M. Piacentini,G. Ferretti
Neurocirugía , 2006,
Abstract: Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group of congenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documented in the available international literature. Generally speaking, these anomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, of a transverse course or of a characteristic anastomized appearance. Firstly described as an incidental finding during autopsies or surgical procedures performed for lumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have been more frequently described in the last years due to the advances made in radiological diagnosis (metrizamide myelography and CT, MRI). Our study comprised three patients with conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots, representing 0.25% of a total of 1200 patients who underwent lumbosacral CT/MRI procedures in the Addolorata Hospital and in the Service of Neuroradiology of the University of Rome "La Sapienza" during the last three years (March 2001March 2004). We report our experience with three cases of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots and analyze the most important literature on this topic. MR imaging is a better diagnostic procedure (in comparison to CT) for the differentiation of nerve root anomalies and, in particular, coronal sections furnish a precise definition of the profile of the conjoined/enlarged rootlets. In fact, the accurate information derived from MRI of multiple planes may be priceless for the preoperative and diagnostic evaluation of lumbosacral nerve root anomalies. Las anomalías congénitas de los nervios raquídeos lumbares no son muy frecuentes y suelen ser difíciles de detectar en TAC sin contraste. La raíces lumbares pueden ser conjuntas o bífidas y frecuentemente son descubiertas en las autopsias clínicas. Cursan habitualmente con dolor (episodios de lumbalgia y lumbociatalgia) y sin déficit motor ni sensitivo. Las raíces conjuntas frecuentemente se aprecian en la RM. Presentamos tres casos de raíces lumbares conjuntas intervenidos en el Servicio de Radiología del Hospital Addolorata de Roma y en el Servicio de Neurorradiología del Hospital Universitario de Roma "La Sapienza" entre 2001 y 2004, representando 0.25% de todos los 1200 pacientes evaluados mediante TAC y RM, y revisamos los aspectos diagnósticos presentados en la literatura mundial.L a RM es, en muchas ocasiones, superior a la TAC simple en el diagnóstico de las anomalías de las raíces nerviosas; además la RM tiene la ventaja de los planos sagitales y coronales. La visualización de la médula y la cola de caballo, sin necesidad de contrast
Reinke’s Edema: investigations on the role of MIB-1 and hepatocyte growth factor
M. Artico,E. Bronzetti,B. Ionta,M. Bruno
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2010.e30
Abstract: Reinke’s edema is a benign disease of the human vocal fold, which mainly affects the sub-epithelial layer of the vocal fold. Micro-scopic observations show a strongly oedematous epithelium with loosened intercellular junctions, a disruption of the extracellular connections between mucosal epithelium and connective tissue, closely adherent to the thyroarytenoid muscle. Thickening of the basal layer of epithelium, known as Reinke’s space, high deposition of fibronectin and chronic inflammatory infiltration it is also visible. We analyzed, together with the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the expression level of MIB-1 in samples harvested from patients affected by Reinke’s edema, in order to define its biological role and consider it as a possible prognostic factor in the follow-up after surgical treatment. We observed a moderate expression of HGF in the lamina propria of the human vocal fold and in the basal membrane of the mucosal epithelium. Our finding suggests that this growth factor acts as an anti – fibrotic agent in Reinke’s space and affects the fibronectin deposition in the lamina propria. MIB-1, on the contrary, showed a weak expression in the basement membrane of the mucosal epithelium and a total absence in the lamina propria deep layer, thus suggesting that only the superficial layer is actively involved in the reparatory process with a high regenerative capacity, together with a high deposition of fibronectin. The latter is necessary for the cellular connections reconstruction, after the inflammatory infiltration.
Immunohistochemical profile of some neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in the seminiferous tubules of rats treated by lonidamine
M Artico,E Bronzetti,L Saso,LM Felici
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/1007
Abstract: Lonidamine (LND) or [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3- carboxylic acid] is an anticancer and antispermatogenic drug that exerts a large number of effects on tumor cells and germ cells. Sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were housed at 22°C on a 12-h light/12-h dark cycle 1 week before the experiments, with free access to food and water. LND was suspended in 0.5% methylcellulose at a concentration of 10 mg/mL and administered orally at the dose of 10 mL/kg (b.w.) as a single dose. Control rats received an equal amount of vehicle. Testes were removed, fixed for 24 h in 2% glutaraldehyde and 2% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 7.2 at 22°C), rinsed with the same buffer, and stored at room temperature. From each sample, a block of tissue was removed by sectioning through the organ. After dehydration in ethanol at increasing concentrations (70-100%), each block was embedded in paraffin and serial 5 mm thick sections were cut using a rotatory microtome. The immunoreactivity for NTs has been observed in spermatogonia of untreated rats, while the rats treated with LND showed an immunohistochemical localization in all the stages of germinal cells. The generally well-expressed immunoreactivity for the neurotrophins receptors in treated rats observed in our study is presumably attributable to alterations of the receptors’ structure and/or expression leading to changes of the activity, affinity, localization or protein interactions that may depend on sensitization of ion channels (induced by LND). Neurotrophins (NTs) appear to be interesting proteins for the modulation of sperm maturation and motility with a prominent role for the nerve growth factor (NGF), that may exert an autocrine or paracrine role.We therefore investigated the location and distribution of immunoreactivity for some neurotransmitters (SP, VIP, CGRP, nNOS, Chat), neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, NT-3) and their own receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC, p75) in the seminiferous tubules of male rats treated by LND in the light of the literature on this topic.
Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex
FM Tranquilli Leali,M Artico,S Potenza,C Cavallotti
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2003, DOI: 10.4081/810
Abstract: Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old) and aged (26- month-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.
Expression of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins in neurogenic inflammation of the rat retina
E Bronzetti,M Artico,I Kovacs,LM Felici
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2007, DOI: 10.4081/1149
Abstract: Antidromic stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion triggers the release of substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from sensory nerve terminals of the capsaicin sensitive C-fibers. These pro-inflammatory neuropeptides produce a marked hyperemia in the anterior segment of the eye, accompanied by increased intraocular pressure, breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier and myosis. To assess the effects of neurogenic inflammation on the retina, specifically on the immunostaining of neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, as well as on the expression of neurotrophin receptors in the retina. RT-PCR was also accomplished in control and stimulated animals to confirm the immunohistochemical results. In the electrically stimulated eyes, immunostaining for SP, CGRP, VIP and nNOS demonstrated a marked increase in the RPE/POS (Retinal Pigment Epithelium/Photoreceptor Outer Segments), in the inner and outer granular layers and in the ganglion cells in comparison to the control eyes. CGRP and SP were found increased in stimulated animals and this result has been confirmed by RT- PCR. Changes in neurotrophin immunostaining and in receptor expression were also observed after electric stimulation of trigeminal ganglia. Decrease of BDNF and NT4 in the outer and inner layers and in ganglion cells was particularly marked. In stimulated rat retinas immunostaining and RT-PCR showed a NGF expression increase. Neurotrophin receptors remained substantially unchanged. These studies demonstrated, for the first time, that antidromic stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion and subsequent neurogenic inflammation affect immunostaining of retinal cell neurotransmitter/ neuropeptides and neurotrophins as well as the expression of neurotrophin receptors.
Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3
M. Artico,E. Bronzetti,V. Alicino,B. Ionta
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2010.e10
Abstract: Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively.1 Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together, could be adopted as a panel of prognostic factors in the evaluation of the gallbladder carcinoma.
Effect of Interleukin 1b on rat thymus microenvironment
M Artico,C Cavallotti,GD Iannetti,D Cavallotti
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/1644
Abstract: The effect of interleukin 1b on the thymus of control and chemically sympathectomized adult and aged rats was studied with the aim of assessing the importance of adrenergic nerve fibres (ANF) in the regulation of some immunological functions.The whole thymus was removed from normal, sympathectomized (with the neurotoxin 6-OH-dopamine) and treated (interleukin 1b) rats. Thymic slices were stained with eosin orange (for the recognition of microanatomical details of the thymic microenvironment) and with Bodian’s method for staining of nerve fibres. Histofluorescence microscopy was employed for staining ANF and immunofluorescence was used for detecting NPY-like immunoreactivity. All images were submitted to quantitative morphometrical analysis and statistical analysis of data. Moreover, the amount of proteins and noradrenaline was measured on thymic homogenates. The results indicate that in normal conditions the formation of the thymic nerve plexi in the rat is complex: the majority of ANF are destroyed after chemical sympathectomy with 6-OH-dopamine and do not change after treatment with interleukin 1b; on the contrary, treatment with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the fresh weight of the thymus, the thymic microenvironment, thymic nerve fibers, ANF, NPY-like positive nerve fibres, and on the total amount of proteins and noradrenaline in rat thymic tissue homogenates.Immunostimulation with interleukin 1b induces substantial changes in the whole thymus, in its microenvironment and in ANF and NPY-like nerve fibres. After chemical sympathectomy, no significant immune response was evoked by interleukin 1b, since the majority of ANF was destroyed by chemical sympathectomy.
Altera??es histopatológicas em placentas humanas relacionadas às síndromes hipertensivas
Artico, Luciano Guimar?es;Madi, José Mauro;Godoy, Alessandra Eifler Guerra;Coelho, Celso Piccoli;Rombaldi, Renato Luís;Artico, Graziela Rech;
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-72032009000100003
Abstract: purpose: to determine the prevalence of histopathological changes, in human placentas, related to hypertensive syndromes. methods: a transversal study that compares histopathological changes identified in 43 placentae from hypertensive pregnant women (hyppr), with the ones from 33 placentae from normotensive pregnant women (norpr). the weight, volume and macroscopic and microscopic occurrence of infarctions, clots, hematomas, atherosis (partial obliteration, thickness of layers and presence of blood vessels hyalinization) and tenney-parker changes (absent, discreet and prominent), as well as the locating of infarctions and clots (central, peripheral or the association of both) have been analyzed. the χ2 and t student tests have been used for the statistical analysis, as well as medians, standard deviations and ratios. it has been considered as significant, p<0.05. results: the macroscopic study of hyppr placentae have presented lower weight (461.1 versus 572.1 g) and volume (437.4 versus 542.0 cm3), higher infarction (51.2 versus 45.5%; p<0.05: or=1.15) and clots (51.2 versus 15.1%; p<0.05; or=5.4) ratios, as compared to the norpr's. in the hyppr and norpr, microscopic clots have occurred in 83.7 versus 45.5% (p<0.05; or=4.3), respectively. atherosis and tenney-parker changes have been statistically associated to the hypertensive syndromes (p<0.05). conclusions: the obtained data allow us to associate lower placentary weight and volume, higher ratio of macro and microscopic infarction, clots, atherosis and tenney-parker changes to placentae of gestations occurring with hypertensive syndromes.
Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots: observations on three cases and review of the literature
Artico,M.; Carloia,S.; Piacentini,M.; Ferretti,G.; Dazz,M.; Franchitto,S.; Bronzetti,E.;
Neurocirugía , 2006, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-14732006000100007
Abstract: lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group of congenital anatomical anomalies. various types of anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documented in the available international literature. generally speaking, these anomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, of a transverse course or of a characteristic anastomized appearance. firstly described as an incidental finding during autopsies or surgical procedures performed for lumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have been more frequently described in the last years due to the advances made in radiological diagnosis (metrizamide myelography and ct, mri). our study comprised three patients with conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots, representing 0.25% of a total of 1200 patients who underwent lumbosacral ct/mri procedures in the addolorata hospital and in the service of neuroradiology of the university of rome "la sapienza" during the last three years (march 2001march 2004). we report our experience with three cases of conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots and analyze the most important literature on this topic. mr imaging is a better diagnostic procedure (in comparison to ct) for the differentiation of nerve root anomalies and, in particular, coronal sections furnish a precise definition of the profile of the conjoined/enlarged rootlets. in fact, the accurate information derived from mri of multiple planes may be priceless for the preoperative and diagnostic evaluation of lumbosacral nerve root anomalies.
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