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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 211164 matches for " Arthur L. Caplan "
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The Actress, the Court, and What Needs to Be Done to Guarantee the Future of Clinical Genomics
Arthur L. Caplan
PLOS Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001663
Chloe’s Law: A Powerful Legislative Movement Challenging a Core Ethical Norm of Genetic Testing
Arthur L. Caplan
PLOS Biology , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002219
Abstract: Since the early 1970s, the ethical norm governing counselors involved in testing and screening for genetic conditions related to reproduction has been strict neutrality. Counseling about reproductive genetics was to be patient centered but nondirective. Many advocates for people with Down syndrome believe that high abortion rates following a diagnosis of this condition show an unfounded bias against those with Down syndrome. These advocates have succeeded in enacting federal and state legislation that requires women who receive a prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome to receive positive information about the condition, thereby ending the nominal goal of value-neutral counseling and setting the stage for further normative shifts in clinical reproductive genetics as counseling expands because of cell-free testing.
Bioethics Grows Up
Arthur Caplan
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060095
Bioethics Grows Up
Arthur Caplan
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060095
Is It Ethical to Use Enhancement Technologies to Make Us Better than Well?
Arthur Caplan,Carl Elliott
PLOS Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0010052
Abstract: Background to the Debate A variety of biomedical technologies are being developed that can be used for purposes other than treating disease. Such “enhancement technologies” can be used to improve our appearance and regulate our emotions, with the goal of feeling “better than well.” While these technologies can help people adapt to their rapidly changing lifestyles, their use raises important ethical issues.
Cell based therapy aides in infection and inflammation resolution in the murine model of cystic fibrosis lung disease  [PDF]
Tracey L. Bonfield, Donald Lennon, Santosh K. Ghosh, Amy M. DiMarino, Aaron Weinberg, Arnold I. Caplan
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2013.32019

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetically inherited disease which is characterized by excessive inflammation and inability to resolve infection with pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment options have improved with correctors and potentiators, but a cure remains elusive. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have the potential to be both anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial, which makes them ideal candidates for exploration as an innovative new therapeutic for CF. Using a sublethal CF mouse model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, we show that hMSCs and wild type bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM) have the capacity to attenuate inflammation while at the same time improving the ability to resolve infection. Animals infected with bacteria and treated with hMSCs and BMM had less weight lost, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased severity of gross lung pathology as well as clinical score. Importantly, even though the inflammation was decreased in vivo, both BMM and hMSC treatment resulted in significant decrease in lung bacterial load. The improvement in the CF model was consistent with hMSC induced anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity which may involve the cathelicidin LL-37. These studies suggest that both healthy MSCs and BMM may provide important new direction toward cell based therapies in CF.

Structural, functional, and evolutionary analysis of moeZ, a gene encoding an enzyme required for the synthesis of the Pseudomonas metabolite, pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid)
Marc S Cortese, Allan B Caplan, Ronald L Crawford
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-2-8
Abstract: Analysis of sequences similar to P. stutzeri MoeZ revealed that it is a member of a superfamily consisting of related but structurally distinct proteins that are members of pathways involved in the transfer of sulfur-containing moieties to metabolites. Members of this family of enzymes are referred to here as MoeB, MoeBR, MoeZ, and MoeZdR. MoeB, the molybdopterin synthase activating enzyme in the molybdopterin cofactor biosynthesis pathway, is the most characterized protein from this family. Remarkably, lengths of greater than 73% nucleic acid homology ranging from 35 to 486 bp exist between Pseudomonas stutzeri moeZ and genomic sequences found in some Mycobacterium, Mesorhizobium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, and cyanobacteria species.The phylogenetic relationship among moeZ sequences suggests that P. stutzeri may have acquired moeZ through lateral gene transfer from a donor more closely related to mycobacteria and cyanobacteria than to proteobacteria. The importance of this relationship lies in the fact that pdtc, the product of the P. stutzeri pathway that includes moeZ, has an impressive set of capabilities, some of which could make it a potent pathogenicity factor.Pyridine-2,6-bis(thiocarboxylic acid) (pdtc) is an iron-regulated metabolite produced by certain pseudomonads that is highly reactive towards metals by virtue of a pair of thiocarboxylate groups and ring nitrogen that combine to form a non-specific, high affinity, tri-dentate ligand (Figure 1)[1,2]. The formation constants for Co, Cu, and Fe complexes of pdtc were determined to be greater than 1033 [3]. Uptake studies using 59Fe showed that addition of pdtc to the growth medium of two different pdtc-producing pseudomonads increased the efficiency of iron uptake by 20% [1]. The contribution of pdtc to iron uptake may be due to the fact that the copper complex of pdtc (Cu:pdtc) has the ability to reduce both soluble and mineral forms of ferric iron) [1]. Not surprisingly, in light of its high affinity for
Sequential Formation of Massive Stars at the Periphery of H II Regions
L. Deharveng,A. Zavagno,J. Caplan,B. Lefloch
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2003,
Synchronic coronal hole mapping using multi-instrument EUV images: Data preparation and detection method
R. M. Caplan,C. Downs,J. L. Linker
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A method for the automatic mapping of coronal holes (CH) using simultaneous multi-instrument EUV imaging data is described. Synchronized EUV images from STEREO/EUVI A\&B 195\AA\ and SDO/AIA 193\AA\ undergo preprocessing steps that include PSF-deconvolution and the application of data-derived intensity corrections that account for center-to-limb variations (limb-brightening) and inter-instrument intensity normalization. A systematic approach is taken to derive a robust limb-brightening correction technique that takes advantage of unbiased long-term averages of data and respects the physical nature of the problem. The new preprocessing greatly assists in CH detection, allowing for the use of a simplified variable-connectivity two-threshold region growing image segmentation algorithm to obtain consistent detection results. Some examples of the generated synchronic EUV and CH maps are shown, as well as preliminary analysis of CH evolutions. Several data and code products are made available to the community ({\tt www.predsci.com/chd}): For the period of this study (06/10/2010 to 08/18/14) we provide synchronic EUV and coronal hole map data at 6-hour cadence, data derived limb brightening corrections for STEREO/EUVI A\&B 195\AA\ and SDO/AIA 193\AA, and inter-instrument correction factors to equate their intensities. We also provide the coronal hole image segmentation code modules ({\tt ezseg}) which are implemented in both FORTRAN OpenMP and GPU-accelerated C-CUDA. A complete implementation of our coronal hole detection pipeline in the form of a ready-to-use MATLAB driver script {\tt euv2chm} utilizing {\tt ezseg} is also made available.
Three Protocols Designed to Individualize and Maximize Anti-Cancer Drug Therapy  [PDF]
Arthur J. Weiss, Irwin L. Stoloff
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.612120
Abstract: The role that attaining maximum drug dosage intensity plays in many anti-cancer protocols is a major one, particularly in those protocols that attempt to totally eradicate the neoplasm. A classic approach to facilitate this process utilizes stem cell transplants as well as the use of hematopoetic growth factors. However, problems arise with both allogenic and autologous transplants as well as from the significant variability in drug tolerance between individual patients. With average fixed dose protocols, these problems substantially limit the ability to optimize drug dosage. We attempted to circumvent this difficulty by using low dose continuous infusional therapy of variable duration depending upon the patient’s response, together with simultaneous hematopoietic growth factor support. This paper presents our results with three drugs, doxorubicin, ifosphamide, and vinorelbine. With these protocols, we were able to individualize and optimize the amount of drug delivered to each patient, as well as to substantially increase the drug dosage intensity of each of these agents.
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