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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5243 matches for " Arthur DAVIES "
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The System of Local Management of Schools in the UK – Achieving an Optimal Balance of Centralization and Decentralization in Education
Arthur DAVIES
Postmodern Openings , 2011,
Abstract: This article draws from UK experience where there have been changes in the balance of centralization and decentralization in efforts to enhance the quality of education. Particular attention is given to school autonomy (local management of schools), school choice and the private role in state education management. Successful experience is analysed, guidelines are formulated to assist those seeking to introduce such strategies. Further research areas are identified. The context for centralization and decentralization is shaped by patterns of governance. In the UK , where the national government has the authority to make policies in education, decentralization has referred to a shift in authority from national government to schools. This article describes the current reform strategies from centralization to decentralization as ‘experimenting with school choice and greater autonomy to build all students’ enthusiasm for learning, as well as standardization and school accountability to ensure all students’ mastery of core content’.
New Forms of Management and Governance in the School System in England and Wales
Arthur DAVIES
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2011,
Abstract: The imposition of the neo-liberal agenda in the school system is a difficult entity. It requires new systems of control. These are particularly important in relation to the development of a more decentralised system of schools. This article examines how to exercise control over a more decentralised education system, the requirements of new forms of management and regulation, which this article itemises into 5 categories. All of these are accompanied by a systematic ideological offensive to persuade teachers, parents, students, voters that these reforms are desirable and that there is no credible alternative. This article examines 3 of these categories, the management and leadership of schools, transformational leadership and distributed leadership and new forms of coordination in local systems. Also analysed are education governance networks, issues surrounding the new forms of educational governance and management, the resistance to change factors and an alalysis of viable alternatives.
Assessing the Efficacy of Nano- and Micro-Sized Magnetic Particles as Contrast Agents for MRI Cell Tracking
Arthur Taylor, Anne Herrmann, Diana Moss, Violaine Sée, Karen Davies, Steve R. Williams, Patricia Murray
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100259
Abstract: Iron-oxide based contrast agents play an important role in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of labelled cells in vivo. Currently, a wide range of such contrast agents is available with sizes varying from several nanometers up to a few micrometers and consisting of single or multiple magnetic cores. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of these different particles for labelling and imaging stem cells, using a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line to investigate intracellular uptake, retention and processing of nano- and microsized contrast agents. The effect of intracellular confinement on transverse relaxivity was measured by MRI at 7 T and in compliance with the principles of the ‘3Rs’, the suitability of the contrast agents for MR-based cell tracking in vivo was tested using a chick embryo model. We show that for all particles tested, relaxivity was markedly reduced following cellular internalisation, indicating that contrast agent relaxivity in colloidal suspension does not accurately predict performance in MR-based cell tracking studies. Using a bimodal imaging approach comprising fluorescence and MRI, we demonstrate that labelled MSC remain viable following in vivo transplantation and can be tracked effectively using MRI. Importantly, our data suggest that larger particles might confer advantages for longer-term imaging.
Optimal Recovery of Holomorphic Functions from Inaccurate Information about Radial Integration  [PDF]
Arthur DeGraw
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.24035
Abstract: This paper addresses the optimal recovery of functions from Hilbert spaces of functions on the unit disc. The estimation, or recovery, is performed from inaccurate information given by integration along radial paths. For a holomorphic function expressed as a series, three distinct situations are considered: where the information error in L2 norm is bound by δ>0 or for a finite number of terms the error in l2N norm is bound by δ>0 or lastly the error in the jth coefficient is bound by δj>0. The results are applied to the Hardy-Sobolev and Bergman-Sobolev spaces.
Exchange Rate Determination in Developing Economies  [PDF]
Oluremi Davies Ogun
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35067
Abstract: This paper identifies the determinants of nominal exchange rate movements in less developed countries operating the flexible exchange rate system. Factors peculiar to such countries which are believed to potently drive their nominal ex-change rates are incorporated into the resulting model. In particular, the weather, parallel market exchange rate and its associated premium as well as corrupt practices enter the model. While all four factors should play crucial roles in ex-plaining short-run variations in the exchange rate, corrupt practices may still be at work in the long-run. However, those more advanced developing countries that have succeeded in instituting a relatively more effective legal system stem-ming the tide of corruption, and, also characterized by a near absence of parallel exchange rate market, may follow the standard model of exchange rate in the literature.
Plain cigarette packaging: A policy analysis of Australia’s integrated “whole-of-system” model for smoking cessation  [PDF]
Lorraine Davies, Erica Bell
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.412187
Abstract: Introduction: Plain cigarette packaging as a tobacco control measure is to be implemented in Australia on December 1st 2012. There is mounting evidence for its likely impact on smokers and potential smokers. Yet Australia’s integrated model of smoking cessation and the particular role and opportunities it has created for primary healthcare have not yet been subject to policy analysis in leading international journals. This policy analysis paper explores these new Australian policy developments and debates in ways that identify their international relevance to primary healthcare. Policy analysis: There are 57 studies about plain cigarette packaging published since 2002. Of these, 27 looked at the impact of health warnings. These studies support the introduction of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure, by increasing the efficacy of health warnings and reducing misconceptions about cigarettes. However, the Australian tobacco control reforms are not limited to plain cigarette packaging. They include other evidence-based tobacco control measures as part of its primary health care strategy: for example, increasing tobacco excises, a mass media campaign focusing on high-risk and hard-to-reach groups, and a national summit on smoking in prisons. The Australian government has acknowledged the key role of primary health care in health promotion activities, establishing a network of regional primary health care organisations (“medicare locals”) in 2011-2012, and expanding the role of nurses in general practice. These initiatives offer general practice a chance to seize “golden opportunities to intervene with smoking patients”. Conclusions: Whether the combined impact of the Australian government’s recent tobacco control reforms and its previous measures will be sufficient to reduce daily smoking prevalence to 10% or less by 2020, only time will tell. What is more certain is that the Australian experience of plain packaging offers international colleagues in general practice key lessons about the importance of “whole-of-system” approaches, integrating efforts at the local to national levels, to tackle smoking cessation. The achievement of Australia’s political leaders in plain cigarette packaging is an extraordinary testament to political will but there is no room for complacency. Primary healthcare sectors must continue to lobby political leaders around the world to tackle smoking at the system level where the motivations and beliefs about smoking are being shaped, especially among disadvantaged groups with lower health literacy.
How to Use a Trafficked Woman. The Alliance between Political and Criminal Trafficking Organisations
John Davies,Benjamin Davies
Recherches Sociologiques et Anthropologiques , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/rsa.416
Abstract: The principal argument of this paper is that migrant women with secure mobility rights and supportive social networks can avoid or mitigate many trafficking harms. However the paper contends that some actors have conspired to prevent such circumstances so as to pursue diverse political agendas at the expense of migrant women. The paper’s analysis restructures the trafficking contest from organised criminals versus law enforcement agencies to principally a contest between migrant women and those political agents who benefit from the moral panic associated with trafficking. It is then argued that it is these more sophisticated political actors rather than organised criminals and the clients of sex workers are the most important stakeholders in sustaining or exploiting trafficking harm. Therefore, it is concluded that resolving many trafficking harms in the EEA could be achieved by subverting political traffickers through improving migration policy rather than fighting organised crime.
The rationale for pre-race aspirin to protect susceptible runners from sudden cardiac death during marathons: Deconstructing the Pheidippides conundrum  [PDF]
Arthur J. Siegel
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2013.35A003
Abstract: Objectives: While endurance exercise such as training for marathons is cardioprotective, cardiac arrests and sudden death occur in previously healthy runners during races predominantly in middle-aged males due to atherosclerotic heart disease. Recent evidence related to this problem is reviewed herein including epidemiologic studies and findings related to acute cardiac risk in asymptomatic middle-aged male runners during races. Method: Literature review related to the above. Findings: The risks of cardiac arrest and sudden death were 1 in 57,002 and 1 in 171,005 respectively in runners with a mean age of 49.7 years among 1,710,052 participants in marathons in the United States since 1980. Atherosclerotic heart disease was the cause of death in over 90% of cases in two retrospective studies and a greater than two-fold increase in cardiac arrests was observed in middle-aged men in the latter half of a 10-year prospective registry beginning in the year 2000. Asymptomatic middle-aged male runners showed elevated biomarkers of inflammation such as interleukin-6, C-reactive protein together with procoagulant effects including in vivo platelet activation, indicating susceptibility to atherothrombosis. Conclusions: Antithrombotic prophylaxis is evidence-based by validated clinical paradigms to prevent cardiac arrest and sudden death in susceptibile marathon runners at high risk for atherothrombosis during races.

Motivating Generation Y and Virtual Teams  [PDF]
Arthur M. Baldonado
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2013.12006
Abstract: How can team members remain effective if members cannot engage in face-to-face interactions? Although the concept of global virtual teams has been a relatively new phenomenon, their use by organizations is a growing trend. The growth of globalization and the explosion of new technology have led to a new paradigm—a workplace that has no walls or boundaries. The purpose of the qualitative, descriptive study was to explore the motivational needs of Gen Y virtual team members and their impact in the workplace based on Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. The participants consisted of Gen Y members at the Lakeland,Florida. The author used a researcher-developed, written survey as research methodology. The findings of the study revealed that Gen Y cohort placed great importance to both hygiene and motivator factors in their motivational needs. Advancement and personal life were both important to Gen Y participants. Managers must be flexible in their managerial approach to Gen Y workers.
A Hypothesis Concerning the Effect of Schedule on the Pattern of 5-Fluorouracil Toxicity  [PDF]
Arthur J. Weiss
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.63028
Abstract:

The significant effect that scheduling has upon the severity and types of drug toxicity has been known for many years. Evidence is available demonstrating that the schedule chosen will substantially effect the relative distribution of drug to various target organs. It has been shown that a likely cause for this with doxorubicin is that the efficiency of the various enzyme complexes responsible for disposing of the drug can be affected by scheduling. We believe a similar process can explain the marked effect that scheduling has on the pattern of 5-fluorouracil toxicity and present both clinical and computer data to illustrate this.

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