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MICROENCAPSULATION: ADVANCEMENTS IN APPLICATIONS
Arsh Chanana,Mahesh Kumar Kataria,Monish Sharma,Ajay Bilandi
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013,
Abstract: Microcapsule is a tiny sphere including core material/internal phase or fill, coated with/surrounded by wall know as shell, coating or membrane. The usual size range of the microcapsule lies between 1 to 1000 μm. The technique is usually applied for targeted drug delivery, protection of the molecule and stability if the core material. Microencapsulation system offers potential advantages over conventional drug delivery systems and also established as unique carrier systems for many pharmaceuticals. This article contains the traditional and the recent pharmaceutical applications of microecapsules. The microcapsules are widely applied in pharmaceutical for Novel drug Delivery System (NDDS), latest formulations, Delivery of DNA Vaccines, Pro Drug Approach, Biodegradable and biocompatible material. Other then pharmaceutical microcapsules are widely used in delivery of probiotic, pesticide industry, food technology, beverages and cell immobilization etc. Although significant advances have been made in the field of microencapsulation, still many challenges need to be rectified during the appropriate selection of core materials, coating materials and process techniques.
A price based automatic generation control using unscheduled interchange price signals in Indian electricity system
S Chanana, A Kumar
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The Availability Based Tariff (ABT) mechanism has been introduced in Indian system mainly to ensure grid security and to deal with grid indiscipline prevailing in the system prior to its introduction. Unscheduled Interchange (UI) charge - one of the components of ABT, acts a mechanism for regulating the grid frequency. At the same time, this mechanism offers opportunity to participants to exchange as and when available surplus energy at a price determined by prevailing frequency conditions. Although the underlying principle on which UI mechanism of ABT operates is quite different from the conventional load frequency control mechanism, it can still be viewed as a price based secondary generation control mechanism. Presently, the generators are responding to price signals manually. In this paper, a model for price based automatic generation control is presented. A modified control scheme is proposed which will prevent unintended unscheduled interchanges among the participants. The proposed scheme is verified by simulating it on a model of isolated area system having four generators. It has been shown here that such control mechanism, if adopted by all generating stations, can improve the control of frequency and bring down the UI obligation of participants.
DC Model of UPFC and its Use in Competitive Electricity Market for Loadability Enhancement
Ashwani Kumar,Saurabh Chanana
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract:
Prospects of Zero Schottky Barrier Height in a Graphene Inserted MoS2-Metal Interface
Anuja Chanana,Santanu Mahapatra
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A low Schottky barrier height (SBH) at source/drain contact is essential for achieving high drive current in atomic layer MoS2 channel based field-effect transistors. Approaches such as choosing metals with appropriate work functions and doping the channel are employed previously to improve the carrier injection from the contact electrodes to the channel and thus mitigates the SBH between the MoS2 and metal. Recent experiments demonstrate significant SBH reduction when graphene layer is inserted between metal slab (Ti and Ni) and MoS2. However, the physical or chemical origin of this phenomenon is not yet clearly understood. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) simulations are performed, employing pseudopotentials with very high basis sets to get insights of the charge transfer between metal and monolayer MoS2 through the inserted graphene layer. Our atomistic simulations on 16 different interfaces involving five different metals (Ti, Ag, Ru, Au and Pt) reveal that: (i) such a decrease in SBH is not consistent among various metals, rather an increase in SBH is observed in case of Au and Pt (ii) unlike MoS2-metal interface, the projected dispersion of MoS2 remains preserved in any MoS2-graphene-metal system with shift in the bands on the energy axis. (iii) a proper choice of metal (e.g., Ru) may exhibit ohmic nature in a graphene inserted MoS2-metal contact. These understandings would provide a direction in developing high performance transistors involving hetero atomic layers as contact electrodes.
First Principles Study of Metal Contacts to Monolayer Black Phosphorous
Anuja Chanana,Santanu Mahapatra
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1063/1.4901998
Abstract: Atomically thin layered black phosphorous (BP) has recently appeared as an alternative to the transitional metal di chalcogenides for future channel material in a MOS transistor due to its lower carrier effective mass. Investigation of the electronic property of source/drain contact involving metal and two-dimensional material is essential as it impacts the transistor performance. In this paper we perform a systematic and rigorous study to evaluate the Ohmic nature of the side-contact formed by the monolayer BP (mBP) and metals (gold, titanium and palladium), which are commonly used in experiments. Employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT), we analyse the potential barrier, charge transfer and atomic orbital overlap at the metal-mBP interface in an optimized structure to understand how efficiently carriers could be injected from metal contact to the mBP channel. Our analysis shows that gold forms a Schottky contact with a higher tunnel barrier at the interface in comparison to the titanium and palladium. mBP contact with palladium is found to be purely Ohmic, where as titanium contact demonstrates an intermediate behaviour.
Pars Plana Vitrectomy versus Combined Scleral Buckling—Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Phakic Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment with Inferior Breaks  [PDF]
Bhuvan Chanana, Raj Azad
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2016.63018
Abstract: Aims: To compare the results of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and combined scleral buckling—PPV (SB/PPV) in phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with inferior breaks. Methods: Randomized, prospective, clinical controlled trial of forty consecutive phakic eyes with primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, associated with inferior breaks and not complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≥grade C, to either PPV (group 1) or combined SB/PPV (group 2). Results: At 6 months follow up the primary reattachment rate was 100% (20/20 cases) in group 2 and 70% (14/20 cases) in the group 1, the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.027). The best corrected visual acuity improved significantly from a preoperative mean of 1.65 ± 1.13 (Range: 0.6 to 3) to a mean of 0.45 ± 0.11 (Range: 0.3 to 0.6) in the group 2 and in the group 1 improved from a preoperative mean of 2.34 ± 0.92 (Range: 0.48 to 3) to a mean of 0.668 ± 0.20 (Range: 0.48 to 1), the difference between the two groups being statistically significant (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Anatomical and functional success rates are significantly better with the use of a scleral explant during PPV for uncomplicated forms of phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments with inferior breaks.
AN OVERVIEW ON VARIOUS APPROACHES TO ORAL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM VIA GASTRORETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Bhalla.Neetika,Deep Arsh,Goswami Manish
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years scientific and technological advancements have been made in the research and development of oral drug delivery system. Oral sustained drug delivery system is complicated by limited gastric residence times (GRTs). In order to understand various physiological difficulties to achieve gastric retention, we have summarized important factors controlling gastric retention. To overcome these limitations, various approaches have been proposed to increase gastric residence of drug delivery systems in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract includes floating drug dosage systems (FDDS), swelling or expanding systems , mucoadhesive systems , magnetic systems, modified-shape systems, high density system and other delayed gastric emptying devices.
Post-sterilization regrets in Indian women
Malhotra Neena,Chanana Charu,Garg Pradeep
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Tubal ligation is the most common form of contraception in India. We conducted this study to assess the factors associated with post-sterilization regrets. Aims: This study was designed to assess risk factors that are likely to cause regret following female sterilization in Indian women. Settings and Design : Questionnaire-based study. Materials and Methods: This was a questionnaire-based study to assess the level of satisfaction after tubal ligation in women attending family planning clinic at the hospital over a period of 1 year. Evaluation of data obtained through questionnaire from 236 women who had undergone tubal ligation was done.Statistical Analysis : Univariate analysis to determine crude odds ratio was carried out. Subsequently, multiple regression analysis was used to find the adjusted odds ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) for each variable. Results: We found a strong co-relation between regrets and young age (less than 30 years), fewer number of children, few or no male children and lack of partner motivation prior to sterilization. Menstrual irregularities and dysmenorrhoea did not influence regret to a large extent. Conclusion: Fertility-related factors, namely, age at sterilization, family size, number of male offspring, timing of sterilization and non-involvement of partner in decision making played a greater role in post-sterilization regrets than menstrual factors (menstrual irregularities and dysmenorrhoea).
Pregnancy in a patient of Glanzmann′s thromasthenia
Malhotra Neena,Chanana Charu,Deka Deepika
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Glanzmann′s thrombasthenia is a congenitally acquired platelet disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Though, quantitatively normal, the aggregation ability of platelets is reduced in this condition. Pregnancy and delivery are rare in these patients and have been associated with a high risk of severe post-partum hemorrhage. We describe a primigravida, who was diagnosed to have Glanzmann′s thrombasthenia during adolescence. She developed secondary post-partum hemorrhage after an elective caesarean section, which was successfully managed by single donor platelet transfusion.
Performance Analysis of Boron Nitride Embedded Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon MOSFET with Stone Wales Defects
Anuja Chanana,Amretashis Sengupta,Santanu Mahapatra
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4862311
Abstract: We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride {GNR-BN} armchair nanoribbon {a-GNR-BN} MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p+1 and 3p+2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on both sides {2, 4 and 6 BN on each side} on the GNR. The material properties like band gap, effective mass and density of states of these H-passivated structures have been evaluated using the Density Functional Theory {DFT}. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Greens Function {NEGF} formalism to calculate the ballistic MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ~ 5 nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range 276 uA - 291 uA with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 x 10^6 - 7.4 x 10^6 for a VDD = 0.68 V corresponds to 10 nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales {SW} defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.52% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 6.35%.
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