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Improvement in the nutritive quality of cassava and its by-products through microbial fermentation
SO Aro
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: A review of the extent of fermentation of cassava and its by-products was made in order to highlight the role played by fermentation on the bio-conversion of cassava and cassava by-products for improved nutrient quality. The reasons for cassava products fermentation mentioned were synonymous with the reasons canvassed generally for embarking on fermentation which include among others: biological enrichment of the substrate in terms of protein, vitamins, essential amino acids and essential fatty acids; impartation of good aroma, flavour and texture; preservation of the fermented products and decrease in cooking time and fuel requirement. The choice of the fermentation methods that have been employed was the next topic of this article with a dividing line drawn between the two most popular fermentation methods – submerged/liquid substrate fermentation and solid substrate fermentation in which the balance is greatly tilted in favour of the latter, especially in the developing countries because of its relatively low cost, ease of adaptability of local conditions and technologies, little or no effluent generation and a much reduced rate of environmental pollution. The array of some cassava products that have been fermented with their varied rate of success in terms of nutrient enhancement from diverse cultures and background together with animal trials conducted to validate the in vitro nutrient enhancement of these products was also highlighted.
Systematic and non-systematic mortality risk in pension portfolios
Helena Aro
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: We study the effects of non-systematic and systematic mortality risks on the required initial capital in a pension plan, in the presence of financial risks. We discover that for a pension plan with few members the impact of pooling on the required capital per person is strong, but non-systematic risk diminishes rapidly as the number of members increases. Systematic mortality risk, on the other hand, is a significant source of risk is a pension portfolio.
Performance and carcass yield of barrows fed dried poultry waste as a replacement for palm kernel cake
SO Aro, OO Tewe
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Performance characteristics and carcass yield obtained from barrows (castrated male pigs) fed a diet in which dried poultry waste (DPW) totally replaced palm kernel cake (PKC) was investi-gated. The DPW diet was inferior in terms of total weight gained (30.8 kg as opposed to 34.2 kg for the PKC diet). The daily weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization were also better in the PKC diet (610.70 g versus 550 g and 0.318 versus 0.288, respectively). The carcass yield is 43.57 and 41.39 kg in the PKC and DPW diets, respectively. However, the DPW diet showed a lower feed cost per kilogram of the diet and gave higher monetary returns per kilogram of meat produced. Also this study revealed that using DPW to fatten pigs up to 60 kg resulted in a net saving of N196.00 per pig. The inclusion of DPW at this level in the growers’ ration for pigs could therefore be beneficial in terms of reduction of feed cost and higher returns per kilogram of meat produced.
A research on the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children
Selahattin Av?aro?lu
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: In this research, it is aimed to specify the anxiety levels of parents who have mentally handicapped children. For this purpose, the state anxiety levels of parents with mentally handicapped children that the parents will have when they spend time with their children in social environments (visiting neighbours, shopping centres, restaurants and communication in terms of reactions) and the anxiety levels they always have are studied. In this study Spielberger’s “Trait-state Anxiety Inventory” and the Identity Survey developed by the researchers are used as data gathering devices. 264 mothers and 51 fathers, totally 315 parents, whose children attend a special education institution in Meram, Karatay and Sel uklu, the central districts of Konya, and Ak ehir, Yunak, Ilg n, Do anhisar and Kad nhan , districts of Konya, form the sample of this study. According to the findings, it is seen that, state and trait anxiety levels of mothers are significantly higher than fathers’. In relation to the levels of education, there is a significant differentiation in level of state anxiety whereas there is not a significant difference in trait anxiety levels, in relation to the levels of income, there is a significant difference in trait anxiety and state anxiety.
Liability-driven investment in longevity risk management
Helena Aro,Teemu Pennanen
Quantitative Finance , 2013,
Abstract: This paper studies optimal investment from the point of view of an investor with longevity-linked liabilities. The relevant optimization problems rarely are analytically tractable, but we are able to show numerically that liability driven investment can significantly outperform common strategies that do not take the liabilities into account. In problems without liabilities the advantage disappears, which suggests that the superiority of the proposed strategies is indeed based on connections between liabilities and asset returns.
Political, citizen and educational challenges of the use of Internet at school
Jose? Luis Aro?stegui Plaza
Revista Electronica Interuniversitaria de Formación del Profesorado , 2011,
Abstract: This paper focuses on different topics related to democracy underpinning the current development and use of the Internet. In the three first sections, different concepts of democratic theory are discussed (what democracy at large is, what liberalism and neoliberalism are, and the meaning of radical or deliberative democracy). Then, the implications of the Internet for the society in general and for schools in particular are analysed. Finally, it is concluded that schools should not only train on how to use Information Technologies. Students’ training on searching for and selecting information is not enough either. It is also imperative to train students to use the Internet as a tool to get involved in the problems of our world as responsible citizens who act knowingly.
Validity and Reliability of the Socio-Contextual Teacher Burnout Inventory (STBI)  [PDF]
Janne Pietarinen, Kirsi Pyh?lt?, Tiina Soini, Katariina Salmela-Aro
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.41010
Abstract:

Recent research on teacher burnout has advanced our understanding of its dimensions and contributing factors. However, the complexity and dynamics of the social working environments in schools has often been neglected in teacher burnout studies, and hence a valid and reliable context-sensitive instrument for studying teacher burnout in terms of social interaction in schools is needed. This study examined the development of the Socio-Contextual Teacher Burnout Inventory (STBI), its validity as well as reliability, among Finnish teachers (n = 2310). The validity and reliability of the items composing the STBI were determined based on the confirmatory factor analysis. The results showed that the correlated three-factor solution and second-order-factor solution fitted the data. More specifically, teacher exhaustion, cynicism towards the teacher community and inadequacy in the pupil-teacher relationship were found to be closely related but separate constructs. The results also supported the main hypothesis that teacher burnout can be examined in terms of interpersonal problems in an individual’s transactions with others in the workplace. Therefore the sources of teacher burnout may vary not only between schools but also between the social working contexts within a single school. The instrument introduced in this study is a potentially useful tool for exploring interpersonal teacher burnout.

Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals
Radl CM, Rajwar R, Aro AR
International Journal of Women's Health , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S33564
Abstract: erine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals Original Research (1603) Total Article Views Authors: Radl CM, Rajwar R, Aro AR Published Date July 2012 Volume 2012:4 Pages 373 - 382 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S33564 Received: 04 May 2012 Accepted: 17 June 2012 Published: 31 July 2012 Christina M Rad,l Ranjita Rajwar, Arja R Aro University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark Abstract: Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method: The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants' opinions on and experiences with the services offered. Results: It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. Conclusion: The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well.
The Impact of Nosema apis Z. Infestation of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Colonies after Using Different Treatment Methods and their Effects on the Population Levels of Workers and Honey Production on Consecutive Years
Banu Y?cel,Muhsin Do aro lu
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the natural occurance of Nosema apis in honey bee colonies and evaluated of N. apis presence in colonies after medical treatment with fumagillin and thymol in consecutive 3 years period. For this purpose, 208 honey bee colonies randomly selected for detection of N. apis infection from Aegean ecotype of Apis mellifera anatolica, 1 years old queen in April, 2002. The colony development performances and honey yields were evaluated through the years from 2002 to 2004. Infested colonies were classified in 3 groups as tried to be equalized in Nosema infestation level; Fumidil-B, thymol application and control (only sugar syrup feeding). The effects of using period of Fumidil-B, contains fumagillin and thymol on N. apis infected honeybee colonies were researched by determining winter losses, adult bees population, brood and honey production in consecutive years. Also, control group were impacted for same parameters. The adult bee worker population and brood surfaces of treated in both groups (Fumidil-B and thymol) were increased significantly (p<0.05) by years from 2002 to 2004. Honey production of thymol group was exhibited significant (p<0.05) increase by years, consequently. Significant decrease (p<0.05) was recorded in control group for winter mortality, brood production, adult bee worker population and honey yield than the other treatment groups. The study was conducted that, observations of bee hives and regular treatment of infested colonies supported healthy and more productive honey bees. Leaving colonies un-medicated caused severe problems in colony production. Thymol could be suggested to beekeeper as a qualified Nosemiasis prevent agent; cheap, practical and non-toxic in hives for organic honey production. Moreover, with using thymol, residue-free bee products could be handled economically.
Research on accountants’ professional burn out, job and life satisfaction 1- Their levels of professional burn out
Mustafa Ay,Selahattin Av?aro?lu
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: This research has been done to determine whether accounting officers’ levels of professional burn out differentiate in terms of some variables. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson, 1981) was used as the data gathering tool in order to determine accounting officers’ levels of professional burn out. Accounting officers in Turkey formed the universe of the research and randomly chosen 1494 people from the universe made up the sample group. In line with the goal of the study: it has been found out that while accounting members differ in emotional exhaustion significantly, there weren’t any significant differences in depersonalization and personal accomplishment score averages in terms of gender. Although there were differentiations in depersonalization and sub-levels of personal accomplishment in terms of their service period, no differentiation in emotional exhaustion was observed. While some differentiations in emotional exhaustion were observed in terms of officers’ ages, no differentiation was observed in depersonalization and personal accomplishment score averages. It has been found out that there were significant differentiations in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment score averages in terms of officers’ regions, working styles and workplace types.
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