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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402477 matches for " Arnold M. Mahesan "
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Nutritional Correlates of Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2000-2010  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Amy Whitten, Arnold M. Mahesan, Anthea B. M. Paul, Judy Boura
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61008
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the associations of gestational diabetes (GDM) history with dietary intake, nutritional status, insulin resistance, demographic, and anthropometrical data. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2000-2010. Data analysis was based on 290 women who reported a history of GDM compared to 4239 women who denied a GDM history. Insulin resistance [HOMA_IR = (fasting insulin in mU/mL × fasting glucose in mmol/L)/405] was calculated. Pearson correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Student’s t-tests, and chi-square analysis were used while linear regression assessed independent associations. Results: The median time-lapse from the diagnosis of GDM was 15 years. Women with a GDM history had significantly higher body mass index (BMI), other anthropometric measurements, diastolic blood pressures and insulin resistance. They were also more likely to be Hispanic, have delivered macrosomic infants, and delivered via cesarean. Previous GDM history compared to non-GDM subjects had significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, total fat, saturated fatty acids, mono-saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. Within the entire cohort, increasing insulin resistance was also associated with lower income, less college education, Hispanic or African American ethnicity, obesity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and with higher dietary cholesterol but lower intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Regression analyses showed that GDM history, Hispanic ethnicity, BMI, dietary intake of cholesterol and decreasing income were independently predictive of insulin resistance. Conclusion: The data confirm that even many years after a pregnancy associated with GDM, women with a history of GDM still report significantly higher dietary intakes of energy calories, protein, and fat with no corresponding increase in consumption of dietary fiber or minerals and vitamins. Consequently, the increased calorie and food consumption of women with previous GDM are associated with obesity, insulin resistance and higher blood pressures. These observations may suggest the need to target high-risk groups who may need more resources and awareness of the benefits of quality nutrition.
Insulin Resistance in Pregnancy Is Correlated with Decreased Insulin Receptor Gene Expression in Omental Adipose: Insulin Sensitivity and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression in Normal Pregnancy  [PDF]
Arnold M. Mahesan, Dotun Ogunyemi, Eric Kim, Anthea B. M. Paul, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61011
Abstract: Aims: To determine correlations of insulin sensitivity to gene expression in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-diabetic pregnant women. Methods: Microarray gene profiling was performed on subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from 14 patients and obtained while fasting during non-laboring Cesarean section, using Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Expression BeadChips. Findings were validated by real-time PCR. Matusda-Insulin sensitivity index (IS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated from glucose and insulin levels obtained from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test, and correlated with gene expression. Results: Of genes differentially expressed in omental vs. subcutaneous adipose, in omentum 12 genes were expressed toward insulin resistance, whereas only 5 genes were expressed toward insulin sensitivity. In particular, expression of the insulin receptor gene (INSR), which initiates the insulin signaling cascade, is strongly positively correlated with IS and negatively with HOMA-IR in omental tissue (r = 0.84). Conclusion: Differential gene expression in omentum relative to subcutaneous adipose showed a pro-insulin resistance profile in omentum. A clinical importance of omental adipose is observed here, as downregulation of insulin receptor in omentum is correlated with increased systemic insulin resistance.
Differentially expressed genes in adipocytokine signaling pathway of adipose tissue in pregnancy  [PDF]
Dotun Ogunyemi, Jun Xu, Arnold M. Mahesan, Steve Rad, Eric Kim, Jacqueline Yano, Carolyn Alexander, Jerome I. Rotter, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2013.32013
Abstract:

Objective: To profile the differential gene expression of the KEGG Adipocytokine Signaling pathway in omental compared to subcutaneous tissue in normal pregnancy. Study Design: Subjects included 14 nonobese, normal glucose tolerant, healthy pregnant women. Matched omental and subcutaneous tissue were obtained at elective cesarean delivery. Gene expression was evaluated using microarray and validated by RT-PCR. Differential gene expression was defined as ≥1.5 fold increase at p < 0.05. Results: Six genes were significantly downregulated with two upregulated genes in omental tissue. Downregulation of Adiponectin and Insulin Receptor substrate, key genes mediating insulin sensitivity, were observed with borderline upregulation of GLUT-1. There were downregulations of CD36 and acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain Family Member 1which are genes involved in fatty acid uptake and activation. There was a novel expression of Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C. Conclusion: Differential gene expression of Adipocytokine Signaling Pathway in omental relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue in normal pregnancy suggests a pattern of insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and inflammation.

Classification with binary gene expressions  [PDF]
Salih Tuna, Mahesan Niranjan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.26056
Abstract: Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how properties of binary spaces can be useful in making inferences from microarray data. In particular, we use the Tanimoto similarity metric for binary vectors, which has been used effectively in the Chemoinformatics literature for retrieving chemical compounds with certain functional properties. This measure, when incorporated in a kernel framework, helps recover any information lost by quantization. By implementing a spectral clustering framework, we further show that a second reason for high performance from the Tanimoto metric can be traced back to a hitherto unnoticed systematic variability in array data: Probe level uncertainties are systematically lower for arrays with large numbers of expressed genes. While we offer no molecular level explanation for this systematic variability, that it could be exploited in a suitable similarity metric is a useful observation in itself. We further show preliminary results that working with binary data considerably reduces variability in the results across choice of algorithms in the preprocessing stages of microarray analysis.
Is the incidence of gastroschisis rising in South Africa in accordance with international trends?-A retrospective analysis at Pretoria Academic and Kalafong hospitals, 1981 - 2001
M Arnold
South African Journal of Surgery , 2004,
Abstract:
A Rare Case of Thymic Carcinoma  [PDF]
Farshad Anvari, Arnold M. Schwartz, Gregory Trachiotis
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.23030
Abstract: Thymic carcinomas are unusual tumors of the thymus gland. Basaloid carcinoma, an unusal epithelioid varient of a thymic carcinoma, is a rare histopathological subtype, and is not well charecterized in the literature. We present the anatomical and histogical features of a basoloid thymic carcinoma, and discuss current diagnosis and imaging strategies, as well as the operative and oncologic care of this type of thymmic carcinoma. Basaloid carcinomas of the thymus after complete surgical resection and adjuvant therapy genarally have a favorable long-term prognosis.
The Role of Regulated mRNA Stability in Establishing Bicoid Morphogen Gradient in Drosophila Embryonic Development
Wei Liu, Mahesan Niranjan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024896
Abstract: The Bicoid morphogen is amongst the earliest triggers of differential spatial pattern of gene expression and subsequent cell fate determination in the embryonic development of Drosophila. This maternally deposited morphogen is thought to diffuse in the embryo, establishing a concentration gradient which is sensed by downstream genes. In most model based analyses of this process, the translation of the bicoid mRNA is thought to take place at a fixed rate from the anterior pole of the embryo and a supply of the resulting protein at a constant rate is assumed. Is this process of morphogen generation a passive one as assumed in the modelling literature so far, or would available data support an alternate hypothesis that the stability of the mRNA is regulated by active processes? We introduce a model in which the stability of the maternal mRNA is regulated by being held constant for a length of time, followed by rapid degradation. With this more realistic model of the source, we have analysed three computational models of spatial morphogen propagation along the anterior-posterior axis: (a) passive diffusion modelled as a deterministic differential equation, (b) diffusion enhanced by a cytoplasmic flow term; and (c) diffusion modelled by stochastic simulation of the corresponding chemical reactions. Parameter estimation on these models by matching to publicly available data on spatio-temporal Bicoid profiles suggests strong support for regulated stability over either a constant supply rate or one where the maternal mRNA is permitted to degrade in a passive manner.
Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia. New therapies in fibromyalgia
Lesley M Arnold
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/ar1971
Abstract: This review focuses on recent randomized, controlled studies of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for fibromyalgia. Clinical recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia will be based on the available evidence from these trials. Although much work remains, progress has been made in identifying potentially efficacious treatments for fibromyalgia. The treatment of fibromyalgia is a rapidly growing area of research, and it is likely that treatment options will continue to expand for patients with fibromyalgia.Although fibromyalgia causes substantial morbidity and disability, there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or European Medicines Agency (EMEA)-approved treatments. Strategies that are being pursued to develop better treatments for fibromyalgia include the development of large, multicenter, well-controlled clinical trials to test the efficacy of a variety of therapies. The results of the clinical trials will help to identify which patients might benefit from a particular treatment, whether that treatment approach is pharmacological, non-pharmacological or a combination of different therapies. The ultimate goal of fibromyalgia treatment is to develop an individualized treatment approach that takes into account the nature of the patient's fibromyalgia symptoms and their severity, the level of function and stressors, and the presence of medical and psychiatric comorbidity.There is emerging evidence that fibromyalgia is associated with aberrant central nervous system processing of pain [1-4]. Although the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia [5] require tenderness in 11 out of 18 discrete regions, patients with fibromyalgia have increased sensitivity to pressure pain throughout the body. Fibromyalgia patients often develop an increased response to painful stimuli (hyperalgesia) and experience pain from normally non-noxious stimuli (allodynia) [6]. Both hyperalgesia and allodynia reflect an enhanced central
[commentary] Rural Education: A New Perspective is Needed at the U.S. Department of Education
Arnold, M. L.
Journal of Research in Rural Education , 2005,
Abstract:
Jump the Shark: A Rejoinder to Howley, Theobald, and Howley.
Arnold, M. L.
Journal of Research in Rural Education , 2005,
Abstract: The author writes a rejoinder to the Howley et al. reply.
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