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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16860 matches for " Armando Di Donato "
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Constitutional Nephrin Deficiency in Conditionally Immortalized Human Podocytes Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Supported by -Catenin/NF-kappa B Activation: A Consequence of Cell Junction Impairment?
Gian Marco Ghiggeri,Maddalena Gigante,Armando Di Donato
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/457490
Abstract: The kidney glomerular podocytes are the cellular target of many chronic nephropathies both determined and acquired genetically. Mutations that affected the expression and/or the function of nephrin, a key component of the slit-diaphragm, are often causes of these pathologies. Recent findings showed that murine podocytes could undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), suggesting new hypotheses about the pathogenesis of glomerular fibrosis. Here, we show that also human podocytes can undergo EMT, but more importantly nephrin ablation itself can trigger this phenotypic transformation. In fact, a model of human podocyte with engineered nephrin deficiency constitutionally expressed high levels of -SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, and other hallmarks of EMT. Since it is known that cell contact abrogation is one of the triggers of EMT, we reasoned that nephrin loss could account for such cell junction disruption and cause the EMT. Therefore, we demonstrated that also normal podocytes could spontaneously undergo EMT if grown in Ca2+-free medium, which is known to impair cell contacts. The analysis of the main intracellular signal transduction pathways evidenced some major anomalies consequent with the nephrin abrogation. The most intriguing was the activation of -catenin pathway, which plays a critical role in podocyte ontogenesis as well as in the nephrin expression and EMT regulation. Also other important signaling proteins, like NF- B, p53, and retinoblastoma protein (RB), showed important activity modifications. Interestingly, most of the above indicated signaling pathway alterations were again reproducible by cell junction rupture, induced by Ca2+ deprivation. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis on kidney sections of patients with NS of Finnish type confirmed the constitutive expression of -SMA. 1. Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process (MET) are physiological processes operative since the first days of the embryological development [1, 2]. In adults, this phenotypic transition is often just a physiological response to a call for tissue regeneration, as in the case of normal wounds [3, 4]. In fact, the cells deriving from EMT, the myofibroblasts, smooth muscle cells alike, are specialized fibroblasts highly active in the production of extracellular matrix components (collagens, elastin, fibronectin, metalloproteinase, etc.) [5]. Unfortunately, EMT is often exacerbated during pathological events such as organ fibrosis, where the process occurs out of control and is irreversible. Recently, it has been pointed out
Antonella De Robbio, Silvia Giacomazzi, Dati aperti con LODe
Francesca Di Donato
Bollettino Telematico di Filosofia Politica , 2011,
Abstract: In questo articolo in italiano, pubblicato su Bibliotime, Antonella De Robbio e Silvia Giacomazzi ci raccontano che cosa sono gli Open Data e in particolare i dati bibliografici aperti, dati che, affermano le autrici, si trovano a metà tra due territori: da una parte, l’ambito della trasparenza amministrativa e delle forme di cittadinanza attiva che [...]
Geospatial semantics: beyond ontologies, towards an enactive approach
Pasquale Di Donato
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Current approaches to semantics in the geospatial domain are mainly based on ontologies, but ontologies, since continue to build entirely on the symbolic methodology, suffers from the classical problems, e.g. the symbol grounding problem, affecting representational theories. We claim for an enactive approach to semantics, where meaning is considered to be an emergent feature arising context-dependently in action. Since representational theories are unable to deal with context, a new formalism is required toward a contextual theory of concepts. SCOP is considered a promising formalism in this sense and is briefly described.
How to Evaluate Adenomyosis in Patients Affected by Endometriosis?
Nadine Di Donato,Renato Seracchioli
Minimally Invasive Surgery , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/507230
Abstract: Objective. The aim of the study is to evaluate adenomyosis in patients undergoing surgery for different type of endometriosis. It is an observational study including women with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis. Demographic data and symptoms were recorded (age, body mass index, parity, history of previous surgery, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, dyschezia, dysuria, and abnormal uterine bleeding). Moreover a particular endometrial shape “question mark sign” linked to the presence of adenomyosis was assessed. Results. From 217 patients with ultrasound diagnosis of adenomyosis, we found 73 with ovarian histological confirmation of endometriosis, 92 with deep infiltrating endometriosis, and 52 patients who underwent surgery for infertility. Women with adenomyosis alone represented the oldest group of patients ( years, ). Deep endometriosis patients were nulliparous more frequently ( ), had history of previous surgery ( ), and complained of more intense pain symptoms than other groups. Adenomyosis alone was significantly associated with abnormal uterine bleeding ( ). The question mark sign was found to be strongly related to posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis ( ). Conclusion. Our study confirmed the strong relationship between adenomyosis and endometriosis and evaluated demographic aspects and symptoms in patients affected by different type of endometriosis. 1. Introduction Adenomyosis is a benign condition of the uterus, defined by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. It is known as a histological diagnosis but it has a clinical dignity showing symptoms (dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility) and sharing some pathogenic mechanisms with endometriosis [1]. Most of the major authors of the first half of the past century dealing with the disease considered pelvic endometriosis and uterine adenomyosis as variants of the same disease process [2, 3]. Also, Sampson (1927), although focusing mainly on the aetiology of the pelvic dissemination of the disease, mentioned uterine adenomyosis and referred to it as “primary endometriosis” [4]. Bazot and colleagues reported that 27% of women with endometriosis had concomitant adenomyosis [5]. Moreover, a 42.76% prevalence of adenomyosis in patients with endometriosis has been recently identified in patients reporting severe or incapacitating dysmenorrhea and deep dyspareunia and in patients with endometriosis of the rectosigmoid [6]. A common pathogenesis for adenomyosis and endometriosis has been hypothesized [7–9] and it was argued that
Cardio-Pulmonary Parasitic Nematodes Affecting Cats in Europe: Unraveling the Past, Depicting the Present, and Predicting the Future
Donato Traversa,Angela Di Cesare
Frontiers in Veterinary Science , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2014.00011
Abstract: Various cardio-pulmonary parasitic nematodes infecting cats have recently been fascinating and stimulating the attention of the Academia, pharmaceutical companies, and veterinary practitioners. This is the case of the metastrongyloids: Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Troglostrongylus brevior, the trichuroid: Capillaria aerophila (syn. Eucoleus aerophilus), and the filarioid: Dirofilaria immitis. Apparently, these parasites have been emerging in several European countries, thus, gaining an important role in feline parasitology and clinical practice. Under a practical standpoint, a sound knowledge of the biological, epidemiological, and clinical impact of cardio-respiratory parasitoses affecting cats, in addition to a potential risk of introduction, establishment, and spreading of “new” parasites in Europe is mandatory in order to understand the present and future impact for feline medicine and to address new strategies of control and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to review the current knowledge of heartworm and lungworm infections in cats, discussing and comparing past and present issues, and predicting possible future scenarios.
Nuclear emulsions in the OPERA experiment
Donato Di Ferdinando,for the OPERA Collaboration
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.radmeas.2009.10.060
Abstract: The use of emulsions as particles detector has a long and successful life. The recent development of fast automatized analysis systems has allowed the use of huge amount of emulsions films with no precedence in the history of particle physics. The OPERA experiment, running in the underground Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS), for the confirmation of the neutrino oscillation in the $\nu_{\mu}\to\nu_{tau}$ channel, is "the major" of these experiments. The experimental technique, the strategy and the first results of the experiment are presented.
Composition of the Fermi-LAT isotropic gamma-ray background intensity: Emission from extragalactic point sources and dark matter annihilations
Mattia Di Mauro,Fiorenza Donato
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.91.123001
Abstract: A new estimation of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB) observed by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) has been presented for 50 months of data, in the energy range 100 MeV-820 GeV and for different modelings of the Galactic foreground. We attempt here the interpretation of the Fermi-LAT IGRB data in terms of the gamma-ray unresolved emission from different extragalactic populations. We find very good fits to the experimental IGRB, obtained with theoretical predictions for the emission from active galactic nuclei and star-forming galaxies. In addition, we probe a possible emission coming from the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter (DM) particles in the halo of our Galaxy. We set stringent limits on its annihilation cross section into gamma rays, which are about the thermal relic value for a wide range of DM masses. We also identify regions in the DM mass and annihilation cross section parameter space which can significantly improve the fit to the IGRB data. Our analysis is conducted within the different IGRB data sets obtained from different models for the Galactic emission, which is shown to add a significant ambiguity on the IGRB interpretation.
Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated
Donato Traversa, Angela Di Cesare, Gary Conboy
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-62
Abstract: Nematodes affecting the cardiopulmonary system of dogs and cats have recently become the focus of increased attention from the scientific community due to their emergence in several European countries and the spread into previously non-endemic regions. This has been particularly the case for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila). Indeed, the importance of infection with the heartworm (A. vasorum and D. immitis) and lungworm (A. abstrusus, C. vulpis and E. aerophilus) parasites in companion animals is heightened by the pathogenic potential of these nematodes, the challenges involved in diagnosis and (for some) their zoonotic potential.The reasons for the apparent emergence of cardiopulmonary parasitoses in pets are unknown but several factors such as global warming, changes in vector seasonal population dynamics and movements in animal populations, may play a role in the recent rise in reports of infection in the various countries of Europe. Most of these parasites have an indirect life cycle, thus requiring an intermediate host (i.e. biological vector) for their development. This is true for the gastropod-borne A. abstrusus, A. vasorum and C. vulpis and for the mosquito-transmitted D. immitis. Conversely, E. aerophilus may develop either directly in the environment or in earthworms acting as facultative intermediate hosts. Consequently, the likelihood for a dog or a cat becoming infected by a cardiopulmonary nematode depends not only on the presence of the vector(s) but also by their abundance and the prevalence of the infection. The occurrence of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms in different geographical areas is mainly influenced by the presence of competent gastropod and culicid species, with the exception of E. aerophilus, whose presence is guaranteed by the ubiquity of the earthworms and by the d
Optical Fiber Extrinsic Micro-Cavity Scanning Microscopy
Andrea Di Donato;Antonio Morini;Marco Farina
PIER , 2013, DOI: 10.2528/PIER12072504
Abstract: An extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity in optical fiber is used to achieve surface imaging at infrared wavelengths. The micro-cavity is realized by approaching a single mode fiber optic with a numerical aperture to a sample and it is fed by a low-coherence source. The measurement of the reflected optical intensity provides a map of the sample reflectivity, whereas from the analysis of the reflected spectrum in the time/spatial domain, we disentangle the topography and contrast phase information, in the limit of nearly homogeneous sample with complex permittivity having Im(ε) << Real(ε). The transverse resolution is not defined by the numerical aperture of the fiber and consequently by the conventional Rayleigh limit (about 0.6λ/), but it is a function of the transverse field behavior of the electromagnetic field inside the micro-cavity. Differently, the resolution in the normal direction is limited mainly by the source bandwidth and demodulation algorithm. The system shows a compact and simple architecture. An analytical model for data interpretation is also introduced.
Diffuse $γ$-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei
M. Di Mauro,F. Donato,F. Calore
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We calculate the diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGN (MAGN) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the {\it Fermi} Gamma-ray Space Telescope ({\it Fermi}). A correlation between the $\gamma$-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on {\it Fermi}-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGN. We constrain the derived $\gamma$-ray luminosity function by means of the source count distribution of the MAGN detected by the {\it Fermi}-LAT. We finally estimate the diffuse $\gamma$-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population which ranges from 10% up to nearly the entire measured Isotropic Gamma-Ray Background (IGRB). We evaluate also the room left to galactic DM at high latitudes ($>10^\circ$), by taking into account the results on the MAGN together with the other significant galactic and extragalactic $\gamma$-rays emitting sources.
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